Pure and Mixed Water
15. Water is either pure or mixed. Mixed water (Ma 'ul muzaf) means
the water which is obtained from something like melon juice, or rose water, or
that water in which something else is mixed, (for example, so much dust is mixed
in it that it may no longe r be called water).
Any water other than mixed water is called pure water (Ma'ul mutlaq), and
they are of five types:
Under-Kurr Water, (QALEEL)
Running Water, (JAREE)
Water of a Well
16. Water, which fills a container whose length, breadth and depth are
three and half spans each, is equal to a Kurr. Based on this, the volume of
water will be 42.875 cubic span, though 36 cubic span is enough. To determine
KURR by weight is not fre e from Ishkal.
17. If essential Najasat like urine, blood, or anything which has
become najis, like a najis cloth, falls in Kurr Water and if the water acquires
the smell, colour, or taste of that najasat, it becomes najis; but if it does
not, then it is not najis.
18. If the smell, colour, or taste of Kurr water changes owing to
something else, which is not najis, it does not become najis.
19. If an essential najasat like blood etc. reaches water which is
more than a Kurr, and changes the smell, colour, or taste of a part of it, if
the unchanged part is less than a Kurr, the entire water becomes najis. But if
the unchanged part is one Kurr or more, then only that part which has changed
will be najis.
20. If water of a spring is connected to Kurr, the water of the spring
will make najis water Pak. But if it falls on the najis water drop by drop, it
will not make it Pak, except when something is placed over the spring, so that
before the drops are form ed, it connects the najis water. Better still, if the
water of the spring is totally merged with the najis water.
21. If a najis object is washed under a tap which is connected with
Kurr, and if water which flows from that object remains connected with Kurr, and
does not contain the smell, colour, or taste of the najasat or essential
najasat, that water will be Pak.
22. If a part of Kurr water freezes to ice, leaving a quantity which
is not equal to a Kurr, and then najasat reaches it, it will become najis, and
water obtained from the melting ice also will be najis.
23. If the quantity of water was equal to a Kurr and later on, if
someone doubts whether it has reduced to less than a Kurr, it will be treated to
be equal to a Kurr, i.e. it will make a najis object Pak, and will not become
najis if najasat reaches it. A nd if water was less than a Kurr, and one
suspects that it may have become equal to a Kurr, it will be treated as
24. There are two ways of establishing that the quantity of water is
equal to a Kurr:
a person should be sure about it himself,
two men who are just, should say so.
25. Under-Kurr water means water which does not spring forth from the
earth, and its quantity is less than a Kurr.
26. If under-Kurr water is poured on something which is najis, or if a
najis thing contacts it, it becomes najis. But, if such water is poured with
force on a najis object, only that part which contacts it will be najis, and the
water which has not reach ed the najis object, will be Pak.
27. Under-Kurr water which is poured over a najis object to remove the
essential najasat will be najis, as it flows after the contact. Similarly, the
under-Kurr water which is poured over a najis thing to wash it after the
essential najasat has been removed, will be najis, as an obligatory precaution.
28. The water with which the outlets of urine and stool are washed,
does not make anything najis, subject to the following five conditions:
It does not have the smell, colour or taste of najasat.
Extra najasat has not reached it from outside.
Any other najasat like blood, has not come out with urine or stool.
Particles of stool do not appear in the water.
More than usual najasat has not spread around the outlet.
29. Running water is that water which springs forth from the earth and
then flows, like the water of a spring or a canal.The flowing or running water,
even if it is less than Kurr, does not become najis upon contact with any
najasat, unless its smell, co lour, or taste changes due to that najasat.
30. If najasat reaches the running water, only that part of the water
will be najis whose smell, colour, or taste changes on account of it, and that
end which is connected with the spring will be Pak even if it may be less than a
Kurr. Similarly, the wat er on the other side of the canal will be Pak, if it is
equal to a Kurr, or if it is connected with the water near the spring through
unchanged water. If not, then it would be najis.
31. A spring which does not run or flow, but replaces water every time
water is drawn from it, will not be treated as running water. That means if
najasat reaches it, and if it is less than Kurr, it will become najis.
32. If water at the bank of a canal is stationary, but is connected
with running water, it will not be considered as running water.
33. If a spring is active in winter, but remains dormant in summer, it
will be treated as running water only when it is active.
34. If the water in a pool or tank of a public bath (Hammam) is less
than a Kurr, but is connected with a store of water which when added to it
becomes equal to a Kurr, it does not become najis by meeting najasat if its
smell, colour, or taste does not ch ange.
35. If water from the pipes fitted in bathrooms and buildings, pouring
through taps and showers, is connected to a tank holding water equal to a Kurr,
it will be treated as Kurr water.
36. Any water which flows but does not gush from a source, will become
najis on contacting najasat, if it is less than Kurr. But if water flows with
force and najasat touches it at the end part below, the upper end will not
37. A najis thing becomes Pak if rain water falls on it once, provided
that it does not contain an essential najasat, except in the cases of clothes
and body which have become najis because of urine, for they become Pak after
being washed twice, as p er precaution. And in objects like carpets and dress,
it is not necessary to wring or squeeze. By rain is meant a sufficient downpour,
and not scanty shower or droplets.
38. If rain water falls on Najisul Ayn and splashes elsewhere, and if
the essential najasat is not found in the water, nor does it acquire the smell,
colour, or taste of the najasat, then that water is Pak. So, if it rains on
blood and then splashes, and particles of blood are seen in the water, or it
acquires the smell, colour, or taste of blood, it is najis.
39. If there is Najisul Ayn on the roof of a building, and water flows
down from the roof after contacting the najis object, it will be deemed Pak as
long as the rain continues. But if it continues to flow down the same way after
contacting the najis obj ect, after the rain has stopped, that water will be
40. The najis earth or ground on which rain falls becomes Pak, and if
it begins flowing on the ground, and while it is still raining it reaches a
najis place under the roof, it makes that place Pak as well.
41. If rain water falls on najis dust or sand, soaking it thoroughly,
it becomes Pak.
42. If rain water collects at a place, even if its quantity is less
than a Kurr, and a najis thing is washed in it while it is raining, it becomes
Pak provided that, it does not assume the smell, colour, or taste of that
43. If it rains on a pure carpet which is spread over a najis ground,
and if the water seeps onto the najis ground while rain continues, the carpet
does not become najis. In fact, the ground also will become Pak.
44. The water of a well which springs forth from the earth, (although
its quantity may be less than a Kurr) does not become najis owing to something
najis falling in it, unless its colour, smell, or taste changes. However, it is
recommended that, in the event of certain najasat falling in it, a quantity of
water should be drawn from the well. Details about this quantity are given in
the relevant books.
45. If a najasat falls into well water and changes its smell, colour,
or taste, it will become Pak as soon as the change in its smell etc. vanishes.
But it is better to wait till it is mixed with the fresh water springing from
46. If rain water is collected in a hole, and its quantity is less
than a Kurr, it will become najis if najasat reaches it after the rain has
Rules Regarding Waters
47. Mixed water, whose meaning has been explained in Article 15, does
not make any najis thing Pak, and its use is not allowed for Ghusl or Wudhu.
48. Mixed water, however large its quantity may be, becomes najis when
even a small particle of najasat falls in it. But, if it falls on a najis thing
from above, with some force, the part which touches the najasat will become
najis, and the part whic h does not touch it, will remain Pak. For example, if
rose water is sprinkled on a najis hand from a sprinkler, the part which reaches
the hand will be najis and the part which does not reach the hand, will remain
49. When najis mixed water is mixed with Kurr or running water, in a
manner that it can no longer be called mixed water, it becomes Pak.
50. Water which was originally pure and it is not known whether it has
turned into mixed water, will be treated as pure, i.e. it will make najis thing
Pak and it will also be in order to perform Wudhu and Ghusl with it. But if it
was originally mixed wa ter, and it is not known whether it has turned into pure
water, it will be treated as mixed water, i.e. it will not make najis objects
Pak, and it cannot be used for Wudhu or Ghusl.
51. Water about which it is not known whether it is pure or mixed, and
it is also not known whether originally it was pure or mixed, will not make
najis things Pak, and it is also not permissible to perform Wudhu or Ghusl with
it. Also, it becomes naj is when a najasat reaches it, even if it is equal to a
Kurr or more.
52. When an essential najasat like blood and urine reaches water, and
changes its smell, colour, or taste,it becomes najis even if it is Kurr or
running water. Similarly, if the smell, colour, or taste of the water changes
owing to a najasat which is outside it—for example, if a carcass, which is lying
by the side of the water, causes a change in smell, the water will be deemed
najis, as an obligatory precaution.
53. If water which has become najis due to Najisul Ayn like blood or
urine, which changed its smell, colour, or taste, joins Kurr-water or running
water, or if rain water falls on it, or is blown over it by the winds, or rain
water falls on it through the drain pipe while it is raining, the water will
become Pak if the change vanishes. However, rain water, or Kurr water, or
running water should get mixed with it.
54. If a najis object is made Pak in Kurr or running water, the water
which falls from the object after it has become Pak, is Pak.
55. Water, which was originally Pak, and it is not known whether it
has become najis, will be deemed Pak; and water, which was originally najis, and
it is not known whether it has become Pak, is najis.
56. The leftover of a dog, a pig and a kafir, other than the people of
the Book,is najis, and as a recommended precaution, the leftover of the people
of the Book is also najis, and it is haraam to consume it. However, the leftover
of the animals, whose m eat is haraam, is Pak, and with the exception of cat, it
is Makrooh to eat or drink the leftover of a such animals.