Covering the body in prayers
796. While offering prayers, a man should cover his private parts even
if no one is looking at him, and preference is that he should also cover his
body from the navel up to the knee.
797. A woman should cover her entire body while offering prayers,
including her head and hair. As a recommended precaution, she should also
cover the soles of her feet. It is not necessary for her to cover that part of
her face which is washed while performing Wudhu, or the hands up to the
wrists, or the upper feet up to the ankles. Nevertheless, in order to ensure
that she has covered the obligatory parts of her body adequately, she should
also cover a part of the sides of her face as well as lower part of her wrists
and the ankles.
798. When a person offers the forgotten Sajdah or tashahhud, he should
cover himself in the same manner as in prayers, and the recommended precaution
is that he should also cover himself at the time of offering Sajda-e-Sahv.
799. If while offering prayers, a person does not cover his private
parts intentionally, or on account of not having cared to know the rule, his
prayers is void.
800. If a person realises while offering prayers, that his private
parts are visible, he must immediately cover them, and it is not necessary for
him to repeat the prayers. As a measure of precaution, he should not continue
performing any part of the prayers, as long as the private parts are visible.
If he learns after the completion of prayers that his private parts were
visible, his prayers would be deemed valid.
801. If the dress of a person covers his private parts while he
stands, but it may not cover them in another posture like in Ruku or Sajdah,
his namaz will be valid if he manages to conceal them by some other means.
However, the recommended precaution is that he should not pray in such dress.
802. One is allowed to cover oneself at the time of offering prayers
with grass, and the leaves of the trees, but as a recommended precaution, these
should be used only when no alternative is available.
803. In a state of helplessness, when one has nothing to cover one's
private parts, one may, while offering prayers, use mud to conceal one's
804. If a person does not have anything with which to cover himself
while offering prayers, but has a hope that he may get some cover, then it is
better to delay offering the prayers. However, if he does not get anything, he
should offer prayers discharging his obligation at the end bit of the time.
And if he prayed in the prime time, and his excuse did not continue till the
end, then as an obligatory precaution, he should pray again.
805. If a person who intends offering prayers does not have anything,
not even leaves, or grass, or mud to cover himself, and if he has no hope of
acquiring any of them, if there are no people looking, he should pray normally,
performing Ruku and sajdah etc. as usual. And if there are people watching,
then he should pray in such a way that his private parts remain hidden from
the view, by praying while sitting, and performing Ruku and Sajdah by signs.
As an obligatory precaution in namaz, an unclothed person should cover his private parts with the parts of his own body, say, while sitting with the thighs, and while standing with his hands.
Conditions for dress worn during prayers
806. There are six conditions for the dress used in namaz:
It should be Pak.
It should be mubah (permissible for him to use).
It should not be made of the parts of a dead body.
It should not be made of the carcass, whose meat is haraam.
If a person who offers prayers is a male, his dress must not be made of
If a person who offers prayers is a male, his dress must not be
embroidered with gold. The details of these will follow later.
807. The dress of a person who offers prayers should be Pak.
Therefore, if he prays with najis body, or dress, in normal situations, his
prayers would be void.
808. If a person did not care to know that namaz offered with najis
body or dress is void, and he prayed in that state, his prayers is void.
809. If a person did not care to learn the rule that a particular
thing is najis, like, if he does not know that the sweat of a Kafir is najis,
and he prayed with it, his prayer is void.
810. If, a person was sure that his body or dress was not najis, and
came to know after namaz, that either of them was najis, the prayers are in
811. If a person forgets that his body or dress is najis, and
remembers during namaz, or after completing namaz, as an obligatory precaution,
he should offer the prayers again, if his forgetting was due to carelessness.
And if the time has lapsed, he should give its Qadha. If it was not due to
carelessness, it is not necessary to pray again, except when he remembers during
namaz, in which circumstances, he will act as explained below.
812. If a person has ample time at his disposal while offering
prayers, and he realises during the prayers that his clothes are najis, and
suspects that they may have been najis before he started the prayers, he should
wash it, or change it, or take if off, provided that in so doing, his namaz does
not become invalidated, and continue with the namaz to its completion.
But if he has no other dress to cover his private parts, or washing the dress, or taking it off may invalidate his namaz, he should, as an obligatory precaution, repeat his namaz with Pak clothes.
813. When a person is praying, and the time at his disposal is short,
and during the prayers he realises that his clothes are najis, and suspects that
they may have been najis before he started the prayers, he should wash it,
change, it or take it off provided that in so doing his namaz is not
invalidated, and complete the namaz. But if he has no other clothes which would
cover his private parts if he took off the dress, nor can he wash or change it,
he should complete his namaz with the same najis dress.
814. When a person is praying, and the time at his disposal is short,
and during the prayers he realises that his body has become najis, suspecting
that it may have been so before he started the prayers, he should wash that
najasat off his body, if in so doing his namaz is not invalidated. But if it
invalidates, then he should complete his namaz in the same state, and his namaz
will be valid.
815. If a person doubts whether his body or dress is Pak, and if he
did not find anything najis after investigation, and prayed, his namaz will be
valid even if he learns after namaz that his body or dress was actually najis.
But if he did not care to investigate, then as an obligatory precaution, he will
repeat the prayers. If the time has lapsed, he will give its Qadha.
816. If a person washes his dress, and becomes sure that it has become
Pak, and offers prayers with it, but learns after the prayers that it had not
become Pak, his prayers are in order.
817. If a person sees blood on his body or dress, and is certain that
it is not one of the najis bloods, like, if he is sure that it is the blood of a
mosquito, and if after offering the prayers, he learns that it was one of those
bloods with which prayers cannot be offered, his prayers are in order.
818. If a person is sure that the blood which is on his body or dress,
is a type of najis blood which is allowed in namaz, like, the blood from wound
or a sore, but comes to know after having offered his prayers, that it is the
blood which makes prayers void, his prayers will be in order.
819. If a person forgets that a particular thing is najis, and his wet
body or dress touches that thing, and then he offers prayers forgetfully,
recollecting after the prayers, his prayer is in order. In such situation, if he
does Ghusl without first making his body Pak, and then proceeds to pray, both
his Ghusl and namaz will be void, unless he is sure that in the process of doing
Ghusl, his body also became Pak.
Similarly, if any part of Wudhu is washed without first making it Pak, and prayers are offered, both Wudhu and the prayers will be void, unless he is sure that in the process of Wudhu, that part, which he had forgotten to be najis, had become Pak.
820. If a person possesses only one dress, and if his body and dress
both are najis, and if the water in his possession is just enough to make one of
them Pak, the obligatory precaution is to make the body Pak, and offer prayers
with the najis dress. It is not permissible to wash the dress, and pray with
najis body. However, if the najasat of the dress is more, or intense, then he
has an option to make either of them Pak.
821. A person who does not have any dress other than a najis one,
should offer prayers with that najis dress, and his prayers will be in order.
822. If a person has two sets of dresses, and knows that one of them
is najis, but does not know which, and has sufficient time at his disposal, he
should offer prayers with each one of them.
For example, if he wishes to offer Zuhr and Asr prayers, he should offer one Zuhr prayer and one Asr prayer with each set. However, if the time at his disposal is short, he may offer the prayers with either of them, and it will be sufficient.
823. The dress which a person uses for offering prayers should be
Mubah. Hence, if a person knows that it is haraam to use an usurped dress, or
does not know the rule on account of negligence, and intentionally offers
prayers with the usurped dress, as a precaution, his prayers would be void.
But if his dress includes such usurped things which alone cannot cover the private parts, or even if they can cover the private parts, he is not actually wearing them at that time (for example, a big handkerchief which is in his pocket) or if he is wearing the usurped things together with a Mubah covering, in all these cases, the fact that such extra things are usurped would not affect the validity of the prayers; although, as a precautionary measure, their use should be avoided.
824. If a person knows that it is haraam to wear usurped dress, but
does not know that it makes prayers void, and if he intentionally offers prayers
with usurped dress, as a precaution, his prayers will be void, as explained in
the foregoing article.
825. If a person does not know that his dress is usurped, or forgets
about it being usurped, and offers prayers with it, his prayers is in order,
provided that he himself is not the usurper. If he himself is the usurper, his
namaz, as a precaution, will be void.
826. If a person does not know or forgets that his dress is a usurped
one, and realises it during prayers, he should take off that dress, provided
that his private parts are covered by another thing, and he can take off the
usurped dress immediately without the continuity of the prayers being broken.
And if his private parts are not covered by something else, or he cannot take off the usurped dress immediately, or the continuity of the prayers is not maintained if he takes if off, and if he has time for at least one Rak'at, he should break the prayers and offer prayers with a dress which has not been usurped. But if he does not have so much time, he should take off the dress while praying, and complete the prayers according to the rules applicable to the prayers by the naked.
827. If a person offers prayers with a usurped dress to safeguard his
life or, for example, to save the dress from being stolen by a thief, his
prayers are in order.
828. If a person purchases a dress with the particular sum of money
whose khums has not been paid by him, then namaz in that dress will amount to
the namaz in a dress which has been usurped.
829. The dress of the person, including those which alone would not
cover the private parts, as an obligatory precaution, should not be made of the
parts of the dead body of an animal whose blood gushes when killed. And the
recommended precaution is that even if the dress is made of the parts of the
dead body of an animal whose blood does not gush (for example, fish or snake),
it should not be used while offering prayers.
830. If the person, who offers prayers, carries with him parts from a
najis carcass, which are counted as living parts, like, its flesh and skin - the
prayers will be in order.
831. If a person who offers prayers has with him parts from a carcass,
whose meat is halal, and which is not counted as a living part, e.g. its hair
and wool, or if he offers prayers with a dress which has been made from such
things, his prayers are in order.
832. The dress of one who is praying, apart from the small clothes
like socks which would not ordinarily serve to cover the private parts, should
not be made of any part of the body of a wild animal, nor, as an obligatory
precaution, of any animal whose meat is haraam.
Similarly, his dress should not be soiled with the urine, excretion, sweat, milk or hair of such animals. However, if there is one isolated hair on the dress, or if he carries with him, say, a box in which any such things have been kept, there is no harm.
833. If the saliva, or water from the nose, or any other moisture,
from an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, like that of a cat, is on the body
or the dress of a person in namaz, and if it is wet, the namaz will be void. But
if it has dried up, and if its substance has been removed, then the prayer is
834. If hair and sweat and saliva of another person is on the body, or
the dress of a person offering prayers, there is no harm in it. Similarly, there
is no harm if animal products, like wax, honey or pearls are with him while he
835. If the person offering prayers, doubts whether his dress is made
of the parts of an animal whose meat is halal, or with the parts of the animal
whose meat is haraam, he is allowed to offer prayers with it, irrespective of
whether it has been made locally or imported.
836. It is not known whether a pearl oyster is one of the parts of an
animal whose meat is haraam, therefore it is permissible to offer prayers with
837. There is no harm in wearing pure fur, and similarly the fur of a
grey squirrel, while offering prayers. However, recommended precaution is that
one should not offer prayers with the hide of a squirrel.
838. If a person prayed with a dress about which he did not know that
it was made of the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam, or if he forgot
about it, he should, as a recommended precaution, pray again.
839. The use of a dress embroidered with gold is haraam for men, and
to pray in a such a dress will make namaz void. But for women its use, whether
in prayers or otherwise, is allowed.
840. It is haraam for men to wear gold, like hanging a golden chain on
one's chest, or wearing a gold ring, or to use a wrist watch or spectacles made
of gold, and the prayers offered wearing these things will be void. But women
are allowed to wear these things in prayers or otherwise.
841. If a person did not know, or forgot that his ring or dress was
made of gold, or had a doubt about it, his prayers will be valid if he prayed
842. In namaz, the dress of a man, even his small scalp cap, or the
laces for fastening the pyjama, or trousers, should not be made of pure silk.
The latter two are as a measure of recommended precaution. However, for men it
is haraam to wear pure silk at any time.
843. If the entire lining of a dress or a part of it is made of pure
silk, wearing it is haraam for a man, and offering prayers with it will make it
844. If a man does not know whether a particular dress is made of pure
silk, or of something else, it is permissible for him to wear it, and there is
also no harm in offering prayers wearing it.
845. There is no harm if a silken handkerchief, or anything similar is
in the pocket of a man, it does not invalidate the prayers.
846. A woman is allowed to wear silken dress in namaz, and at all
847. When one is helpless, having no alternative, one can wear usurped
dress, or dress made of gold fabrics, or of silk. Similarly, if a person is
obliged to wear a dress, and has no other dress but one of those mentioned, he
can offer prayers with such dresses.
848. If a person does not have any dress but the usurped one, and if
he is not forced to put on that dress, he should pray according to rules
prescribed for the one who has to offer namaz unclothed.
849. If a person does not have a dress, except the one made of the
parts of the wild animal, and if he is obliged to put on that dress, he is
allowed to pray with that dress. But if it is not necessary for him to put on a
dress, he should act accordingly to the rules for the unclothed.
But if the dress available is not from a wild beast, but from the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam, and if he is not in anyway obliged to wear it, then, as an obligatory precaution, he should pray twice; once with that dress, and again according to the rules applicable to unclothed person.
850. If a person does not have a dress other than a dress which is
made of pure silk or is woven with gold, and if he is not obliged to wear any
dress, he should offer prayers in accordance with the rules applicable to the
851. If a person does not have anything with which he may cover his
private parts in namaz, it is obligatory on him to procure such a thing on hire,
or to purchase it. However, if it is going to cost him more than he can afford,
or, if he spends for the clothes, it would cause him some harm, he can offer
namaz according to the rules prescribed for the unclothed person.
852. If a person does not have a dress, and another person presents or
lends him a dress, he should accept it, if the acceptance will not cause any
hardship to him. In fact, if it is not difficult for him to borrow, or to seek a
gift, he should do so, from the one who may be able to give.
853. Wearing a dress whose cloth, colour, or stitch, is not befitting
to the status of a person, or is unusual for him, is haraam if it is undignified
or humiliating. But if he offers namaz with such a dress, even if it is only
enough to cover his private parts, his prayers will be valid.
854. If a man wears the dress of a woman, or a woman wears the dress
of a man, adopting it as a usual garb, as a precaution, this is haraam. But
praying in that dress, in any situation, will not invalidate namaz.
855. For a person who has to pray while lying down, it is not
permissible in namaz to use a blanket or a quilt made of the parts of a wild
beast, or, as an obligatory precaution, an animal whose meat is haraam, or of
silk, or if it is najis, if he wraps it around in such a way that it can be seen
But if he only draws it upon himself, there will be no harm, and his namaz will not be affected. As for the mattress, there is no objection at all, except when he wraps a part of it around his body, making it to look like wearing. If he does so, then the same rule as that of quilt will apply.
856. In the following three cases, the prayers offered by a person
will be valid, even if his body or dress be najis:
If his body or dress is stained with the blood discharged from a wound or
a sore on his body.
If his body or dress is stained with blood, spread over a space lesser
than a dirham (which is almost equal to the upper joint of the thumb).
If he has no alternative but to offer prayers with najis body or dress.
Further, there is one situation in which, if the dress of one who prays is
najis, the namaz will be valid. And that is, when small clothes like socks,
scalp caps are najis. Rules of these four situations will be explained in
857. If the body or the dress of a person wishing to pray is stained
with blood from wound or sore etc, he can pray namaz with that blood as long as
the wound or the sore has not healed up. And the same applies to pus, which may
flow out with blood, or any medicine which became najis, when applied to the
wound or the sore.
858. If blood on the dress or the body of a person who is praying,
originates from a small cut or wound which can be healed easily, and which can
be washed clean, then his namaz is void.
859. If any part of the body, or the dress, which is away from the
wound, becomes najis owing to the fluid which oozes out from the wound, it is
not permissible to offer prayers with it. However, if a part of the body or
dress around the wound becomes najis, owing to suppuration, there is no harm in
offering prayers with it.
860. If the body or dress of a person is stained with blood from
internal piles, or from a wound which is within one's mouth, nose etc., he can
offer prayers with that blood. But if the blood is from external piles, then it
is obviously permissible to offer prayers with it.
861. If a person has a wound on his body and he sees blood on his body
or dress which is bigger than the area of a dirham and does not know whether it
is from his wound or some other blood, as an obligatory precaution, he should
not pray with it.
862. If a person has several wounds, but they are so near one another
that they may be treated as one, there is no harm in offering prayers with their
blood, as long as they have not healed. However, if they are separate, each one
as an independent wound, he should wash and make Pak body and dress, each time
when a wound is healed up.
863. If the clothes or the body of a person praying, is stained with
the blood of Hayz, however little, the namaz will be void. And as a precaution,
the same rule applies to the blood of Nifas, Istihaza and the blood from sources
which are essentially najis, like a pig, a carcass, or an animal whose meat is
As regards other bloods, like the blood from a human body, or from an animal whose meat is halal, there is no harm in offering prayers with them, even if they are found at several places on the dress or the body, provided that, when added together, their area is less than that of a dirham.
864. If blood stains one side of the dress, and then seeps through to
the other side, it will be considered as one. However, if the other side of the
dress gets smeared with blood separately, each one will be considered as a
separate blood. Therefore, if blood on both sides is less than a dirham in area
when put together, namaz will be valid with them. But if it exceeds the area,
then namaz will be void.
865. If blood falls on a dress which has a lining, and reaches it, or
falls on its lining and reaches the upper part of the dress, each of them will
be considered separate blood, unless they are so joined together, that it would
be customarily be considered as one blood. Hence if the area of the blood of the
dress and that of the lining, when added together, are less than the area of a
dirham, the prayers offered with them will be in order, and if they are more,
the prayers offered with that blood will be void.
866. If the area of the blood on one's body or dress is less than that
of a dirham, and some moisture reaches it and spreads over its sides, the
prayers offered with that blood is void, even if the blood and the moisture
which has spread there, is not equal to the area of a dirham. However, if the
moisture reaches the blood only, without wetting its edges, then there is no
objection in offering prayers with it.
867. If there is no blood on the body or dress of a person, but it
becomes najis because of contact with some moisture mixed with blood, prayers
cannot be offered with it, even if the part which has become najis is less than
the area of a dirham.
868. If the area of the blood present on the body or dress of a person
is less than that of a dirham, but another najasat reaches it, like when a drop
of urine falls on it, it is not permissible to offer prayers with it, regardless
of whether this extraneous najasat reaches the body or the dress or not.
869. If small dresses belonging to a person offering prayers, like his
socks or scalp cap, which would not ordinarily cover his private parts, become
najis, and if they are not made of the parts of a carcass or an animal whose
meat is haraam to eat, the prayers offered with them will be in order. And there
is also no objection if one offers prayers with a najis ring.
870. It is permissible for a person in namaz to carry with him najis
things, like najis handkerchief, key and knife. Similarly, if he has a separate
najis dress which he is carrying, it will not affect the validity of his
871. If a person knows that the area of the blood stain on his body or
dress is less than that of a dirham, but suspects that it may be one of those
blood (e.g. Hayz, Nifas, Istihaza) which are not excused in namaz, he is
permitted to offer prayers with that blood, and it will not be necessary to wash
872. If the area of blood stains on the dress, or body of a person, is
less than that of a dirham , but he is not aware that it is one which is not
excused in the prayers, and learns later after Namaz, that it was the blood
which are not excused, it is not necessary for him to offer the prayers again.
Similarly, if he believes that the span of the blood is less than that of a dirham and offers prayers, then comes to know later, that it was equal to or more than the area of a dirham, it is not necessary to offer the prayers again.
873. A number of things are Mustahab for the dress of a person who
offers prayers. Some of these are: Turban, along with its final fold passed
under the chin; loose garment on the shoulder ('Aba); white dress; and cleanest
dress; use of perfume, and wearing an Aqeeq (Agate).
Certain Items are Makrooh for the Dress of One who Prays:
874. To wear a black, a dirty, or a tight dress, or to put on a dress
of a person who is a drunkard, or of one who is careless about najasat.
Similarly, to wear a dress which has images printed or drawn on it, to keep the
buttons open, to wear a ring which has images engraved on it.