149. There are twelve things which make najis objects Pak:
Removal of original najasat
Confining (Istibra) of animal which feeds on najasat
Disappearance of a Muslim
Draining of the usual quantity of blood from the slaughtered body of an
150. Water makes najis thing Pak, when the following four conditions
The water should be pure. Hence a najis thing cannot be made Pak with
mixed water like rose-water, or melon-water etc. (Mudhaaf)
The water should be Pak.
The water should not turn into Mudhaaf while the najis thing is being
washed. Furthermore, the smell, colour, or taste of the najasat should not
exist after the final washing, but if changes occur during earlier washings,
there is no harm in it. For example, if a thing is washed with Kurr-water,or
under-Kurr water and, in order to make it Pak, it is necessary to wash it
twice, it will become Pak if the changes in the water do not occur in the
second washing. Any changes occurring in the first washing would not matter.
Small particles of Najisul Ayn should not remain behind in a najis thing
after it has been washed. Other conditions for making najis thing Pak by water
less than Kurr will be mentioned later.
151. The interior of a najis vessel, or utensil, must be washed three
times if less than Kurr water is used, and as per obligatory precaution, the
same will apply if Kurr or running water is used. If a dog drinks water or any
other liquid from a utens il, the utensil should be first scrubbed with Pak
earth, and after washing off the dust, it should be washed twice with Kurr or
lesser water. Similarly, if the dog licks a utensil, and something remains in
it, it should be scrubbed with dust before washin g. And if the saliva of a dog
falls into the utensil, as per obligatory precaution, it should be scrubbed with
dust and then washed with water three times.
152. If the mouth of a utensil which a dog has licked, is narrow, dust
should be thrown into it and after adding some quantity of water, it should be
shaken vigorously, so that the dust may reach all parts of it. Thereafter, the
utensil should be wash ed in the manner mentioned above.
153. If a utensil is licked by a pig, or if it drinks any liquid from
it, or in which a field-mouse has died, then it should be washed seven times
with running water, or Kurr or lesser water. It will not be necessary to scour
it with dust.
154. A utensil which becomes najis because of alcoholic beverage,
should be washed three times, with no difference between Kurr, lesser, or
155. If an earthenware has been made of najis clay, or najis water has
penetrated in it, it should be put into Kurr or running water, so that wherever
water reaches, it will be Pak. And if it is intended to make its interior Pak it
should be left in Kurr or running water for such time, that the water would
penetrate into its entire structure. And if the earthenware is moist, preventing
water from reaching its inner parts, then it should be allowed to dry up, before
it is put in Kurr or running water.
156. A najis utensil can be made Pak with under-Kurr water in two
The utensil should be filled up with water and emptied three times.
Some quantity of water is poured in it, and then the utensil is vigorously
shaken, so that the water reaches all najis parts before it is spilled. This
should be done three times.
157. If a large pot like a cauldron etc. becomes najis, it will be Pak
if it is filled up with water three times, and emptied every time.
Alternatively, if water is poured from above three times, in such a way that it
reaches all its sides, and then the water which collects at the bottom is drawn
out everytime, it will become Pak. But as a recommended precaution, the vessel
used for drawing out water should be washed, when being used for the second and
158. If najis copper and similar things are melted, and washed with
water, their exterior becomes Pak.
159. If a baking oven (Tannur) becomes najis with urine, and if water
is poured into it once from above, in a manner that it reaches all its sides,
the oven will become Pak. But as a recommended precaution, this should be done
twice. And if the oven h as become najis due to something other than urine, then
the najasat should be eliminated first, and thereafter, water will be poured
into it as described. It is better that a pit or hole is dug at the bottom, so
that water collects there. That water is th en drawn out, and the pit is filled
with Pak earth.
160. If a najis thing is immersed once in Kurr or running water, in
such a way that water reaches all its najis parts, it becomes Pak. And in the
case of a carpet or dress, it is not necessary to squeeze or wring or press it.
And when body or dress is najis because of urine, it must be washed twice even
in Kurr water.
161. When a thing which has become najis with urine, is to be made Pak
with water less than Kurr, it should be poured once, and as water flows off
eliminating all the traces of urine, the thing will become Pak.
But if dress or body has become najis be cause of urine, it must be washed twice so that it is Pak. When a cloth or a carpet and similar things are made Pak with water which is less than Kurr, it must be wrung, or squeezed, till the water remaining in it runs out.
162. If anything becomes najis with the urine of a suckling child, who
has not yet started taking solid food, and, as a precaution, is less than two
years old, the thing will be Pak if water is poured over it once, reaching all
parts which had been na jis.
As a recommended precaution, water should be poured over it once again. And if it is a carpet or dress etc. it will not be necessary to squeeze it.
163. If anything becomes najis with najasat other than urine, it
becomes Pak by first removing the najasat and then pouring under Kurr water
once, allowing it to flow off. But, if it is a dress etc., it should be squeezed
so that the remaining water s hould flow off.
164. If it is proposed to make Pak a mat, woven with thread, it should
be immersed in Kurr or running water. When the essential najasat disappears from
it, it will be Pak. But if one uses under Kurr water for making it Pak, then it
must be wrung or sq ueezed in whatever way possible, even by passing it under
the feet, till water in it runs off.
165. If the exterior of wheat, rice, soap etc. becomes najis, it
becomes Pak by dipping it in Kurr or running water. But, if their interior
becomes najis, they will be Pak if Kurr or running water reaches the internal
parts. However, in the case of a soap and similar objects, water does not reach
the internal parts at all.
166. If one doubts whether najis water has seeped into the interior of
soap or not, its interior will be considered Pak.
167. If the outer part of rice, meat, or any other similar thing
becomes najis, it may be placed in a bowl etc., and then water is poured on it
once.Then the bowl is emptied, so that the objects in it become Pak. But if the
bowl itself is najis, this process must be repeated three times. At the end, the
bowl will also become Pak.
If one wishes to make a dress or similar thing Pak in a container, one will pour water, and then press and squeeze the object and tilt the container, so that the remaining wa ter pours off.
168. If a najis dress, which has been dyed with indigo or with any
similar dye, is dipped into Kurr or running water, it will become Pak if water
reaches all its parts before water becomes mudhaaf with colour. But if it is
made Pak with less than Kurr water, it will become Pak only if mudhaaf water
does not come out at the time of wringing or squeezing.
169. If a dress is washed with Kurr-water or running water, and later,
for example, black mud is found stuck on it, the dress will be Pak if one does
not suspect that the black mud has prevented water from reaching the dress.
170. If slush of mud or soap is seen on dress etc. after being made
Pak with water, it will be considered Pak. However, if najis water has reached
the interior of mud or soap, then the exterior of the slush will be Pak, and its
interior will be najis.
171. A najis thing does not become Pak unless the Najisul Ayn is
removed from it, but there is no harm if the colour, or smell of the najasat
remains in it. So, if blood is removed from a cloth, and the cloth is made Pak
with water, it will become Pak ev en if the colour of blood remains on it.
But if, on account of the smell or colour, it becomes certain, or seems probable that some particles of najasat are still present in the cloth etc., it will remain najis.
172. If najasat of the body is removed in Kurr or running water, the
body will become Pak, except when it is najis because of urine, for which one
washing is not enough. But it is not necessary to walk in and out of water to
achieve two washing. If a person under water wipes the najis part with hand,
allowing water to reach there again, it will suffice.
173. If najis food remains between the teeth, and water is taken in
the mouth and moved in such a way that it reaches the entire najis food, the
food becomes Pak.
174. If the najis hair of head and face is washed with under
Kurr-water and if it is not overgrown, it is not necessary to squeeze them for
remaining water to flow off.
175. If a part of the najis body, or dress is washed with under
Kurr-water the parts adjacent to it where water usually reaches will become Pak,
when the najis part becomes Pak. It means that it is not necessary to wash those
sides independently, as t he najis part and parts around it become Pak together.
And similar is the case, if a Pak thing is placed by the side of a najis thing, and water is poured on both of them. Hence, if water is poured on all fingers while trying to make one najis finger Pak, and najis as well as Pak water reaches them all, they will all be Pak together.
176. Meat or fat which becomes najis, can be made Pak with water like
all other things. Same is the case if the body or dress has a little grease on
it, which does not prevent water from reaching it.
177. If a utensil or one's body is najis, but also so greasy that
water cannot reach it, one should first remove the grease, so that water may
reach one's body, or the utensil before making it Pak.
178. Tap water which is connected with Kurr-water is considered to be
179. If a person washes a thing with water, and becomes sure that it
has become Pak, but doubts later whether or not he had removed the Najisul Ayn
from it, he should wash it again, and ensure that the Najisul Ayn has been
180. If the ground which absorbs water (e.g. land on the surface of
which there is fine sand) becomes najis, it can be made Pak with under-Kurr
181. If the floor which is made of stones, or bricks or other hard
ground, in which water is not absorbed, becomes najis, it can be made Pak with
under-Kurr water, but, it is necessary that so much water is poured on it that
it begins to flow. And if that water is not drained out, and it collects there,
it should be drawn out by a vessel or soaked by a cloth.
182. If the exterior of salt-stone or something resembling it, becomes
najis, it can be made Pak with under-Kurr water.
183. If najis sugar, or syrup is turned into solid cubes, or granules,
it will not become Pak if it is immersed in Kurr or running water.
184. The earth makes the sole of one's feet and shoes Pak, provided
that the following four conditions are fulfilled:
The earth should be Pak.
The earth should be dry, as a precaution.
As an obligatory precaution, the najasat should have stuck from the earth.
If Najisul Ayn, like blood or urine, or something which has become najis,
like najis clay, is stuck on the sole of a foot, or a shoe, it will be Pak
only if it is cleared by walking on earth, or by rubbing the foot of the shoe
Therefore, if the Najisul Ayn vanishes by itself, and not by walking or rubbing on the ground, the foot or the sole will not be Pak by earth, as an obligatory precaution. And the earth should be dust or sand, or consisting of stones or laid with bricks; which means w alking on carpet, mats, green grass will not make the sole of feet or shoes Pak.
185. Walking over a tar road, or a wooden floor, will not make the
najis sole of feet and shoes Pak. It is a matter of Ishkal.
186. In order to make the sole of one's feet or shoe Pak, it is better
that one should walk a distance of at least fifteen arm-lengths or more, even if
the najasat disappears by walking a lesser distance, or by rubbing one's foot on
187. It is not necessary that the najis sole of one's feet or shoe are
wet. They become Pak by walking on earth, even if they are dry.
188. When the najis sole of one's foot or shoe becomes Pak by walking
on earth, the parts adjacent to it, which are usually blotched with mud, become
189. If a person moves on his hands and knees, and his hands or knees
become najis, it is improbable that they become Pak by such movement. Similarly,
the end of a stick, the bottom of an artificial leg, the shoe of quadruped and
the wheels of a car or a cart etc. would not be Pak.
190. If after walking, the smell or colour of the najasat, or its
invisible particles, remain in the sole of the feet or the shoe, there is no
harm in it, although the recommended precaution is that one should walk so much,
that these things also disappe ar.
191. The inner part of the shoe does not become Pak by walking, and
similarly, the under part of the socks will not become Pak, unless it is made of
skin or something similar, and one walks with it.
192. The sun makes the earth, building, and the walls Pak, provided
the following five conditions are fulfilled:
The najis thing should be sufficiently wet, and if it is dry, it should
be made wet so that the sun dries it up.
If the Najisul Ayn is present on that thing, it should be removed from it
before it is dried by the sun.
Nothing should intervene between the najis thing and the sun. Therefore,
if the rays fall on the najis thing from behind a curtain etc, or a cloud,
and makes it dry, the thing will not become Pak. But, there is no harm if
the cloud is so thin that it does not serve as an impediment, between the
najis thing and the sun.
Only the sun should make the najis thing dry. So, if a najis thing is
jointly dried by the wind and the sun, it will not become Pak. However, it
would not matter if the wind blows lightly, and it may not be said that it
has had any share in making the najis thing dry.
The sun should dry up the whole najis part of the building all at once.
If the sun dries the surface of the najis earth, or building, first, and later
on dries the inner part, only the surface will become Pak, and the inner
portion will remain najis.
193. A najis mat will be made Pak by the sun, but if it is woven with
threads, then the threads becoming Pak is a matter of Ishkal. Similarly, the sun
does not, in all probabilities, make Pak the trees, the grass, the doors and the
194. If the sun shines on najis earth, and one doubts later whether
the earth was wet or not at that time, or whether the wetness dried up because
of the sunshine or not, the earth will remain najis.
Similarly, if one doubts whether Najisul Ayn had been removed from the earth before sunshine, or whether there was any impediment preventing direct sunshine, the earth will remain najis.
195. If the sun shines on one side of a najis wall and as a
consequence of it, the other side of the wall also dries up, then both the sides
will be considered Pak.
196. If a najis thing undergoes such a change, that it assumes the
category of a Pak thing it becomes Pak; for example, if a najis wood burns and
is reduced to ashes, or a dog falls in a salt-marsh and transforms into salt, it
becomes Pak. But a thing do es not become Pak if its essence or category does
not change; like, if wheat is ground into flour, or is used for baking bread, it
does not become Pak.
197. Any earthenware which is made of najis clay, is najis. But coal
derived from najis wood will be Pak, if it has no semblance of its origin.
198. A najis thing about which it is not known whether it has
undergone any transformation (Istihala) or not, remains najis.
199. Any liquor which becomes vinegar by itself, or by mixing it with
vinegar or salt, becomes Pak.
200. Wine which is prepared from najis grapes etc., or if any external
najasat reaches it, would not become Pak, if it turns into vinegar.
201. Vinegar which is prepared from najis grapes, raisins and dates is
202. If tiny stems and stalks from grapes or dates are added, and then
vinegar is poured over it, or, if cucumber and brinjal is added before it turns
into vinegar, there will be no harm, except if it becomes an intoxicant, before
203. If the juice of grapes ferments by itself, or when heated, it
becomes haraam. However, if it boils so much that only 1/3 part of it is left,
it becomes halal. And it has already been mentioned in rule 114 that the juice
of grapes does not become najis on fermentation.
204. If 2/3 of the grape juice gets reduced without fermentation, and
the remainder ferments, and if it is commonly held as grape juice and not as
syrup, it will be haraam, as an obligatory precaution.
205. The juice of grapes, about which it is not known whether
fermentation has taken place or not, is halal. But if it ferments, then it will
not be halal till 2/3 of it is gone.
206. If, for example, there are some ripe grapes in a bunch of unripe
grapes, and the juice of that bunch is not commonly known as "grape juice", it
will be halal even if it ferments.
207. If one grape falls in something which is boiling with heat, and
if it ferments, but does not get dissolved in it, eating that grape alone will
208. If juice of grapes is being cooked in several pots, it is
permissible to use the same spoon for the pot which has boiled, and the one
which has not.
209. A thing, about which one does not know whether it is unripe
grapes or ripe grapes, will be halal if it ferments.
210. If the blood of a human being, or of an animal whose blood gushes
forth when its large vein is cut, is sucked by an insect, normally known to be
bloodless, and it becomes part of its body, the blood becomes Pak. This process
is called Intiqal.
But when a blood-sucking leech sucks human blood during some treatment, it will be najis, because it is not considered as part of its body – it is considered as human blood.
211. If one kills a mosquito which has sat on one's body, and blood
which it has sucked comes out, it will be considered Pak, as it was destined to
be its part, even if the time gap between its sucking and it being killed be
very small. However, as a rec ommended precaution, one should avoid such blood.
212. If an unbeliever testifies Oneness of Allah, and the Prophethood
of Prophet Muhammad, in whatever language, he becomes a Muslim. And just as he
was najis before, he becomes Pak after becoming a Muslim, and his body, along
with the saliva and the sw eat, is Pak. But if he has any Najisul Ayn in his
body, it should be removed, and then washed. In fact, that part should be washed
even if the najisul ayn had been removed earlier, as per obligatory precaution.
213. If before an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, his wet dress touched
his body, as an obligatory precaution, it should be avoided, regardless of
whether it is on his body or not.
214. If an unbeliever professes Islam, he will be Pak even if another
person is not sure whether he has embraced Islam sincerely, or not. And the same
order applies even if it is known that he has not sincerely accepted Islam, but
his words or deeds do not betray anything which may be contrary to the
confirmation by him of the Oneness of Allah, and of Prophet Muhammad being
Prophet of Allah.
215. Taba'iyat means that a najis thing become Pak, in subjection of
another thing becoming Pak.
216. When wine is transformed into vinegar, its container, up to the
level wine reached on account of fermentation, will become Pak. But, if the back
part of the container became najis because of contact with wine, it should be
avoided, even after wine h as transformed into vinegar.
217. The child of an unbeliever becomes Pak by Taba'iyat, in two
If an unbeliever embraces Islam, his child in subjection to him becomes
Pak. Similarly, if the mother, paternal grandfather, or paternal grandmother
of a child embraces Islam, the child will become Pak, provided that it is in
their custody and care.
If the child of an unbeliever is captured by Muslims, and his father,
paternal grandfather or maternal grandfather is not with him, he becomes
Pak. In both the cases, the child becomes Pak by subjection, on the
condition that if it has attained the ag e of understanding and discerning,
it does not show inclination to Kufr.
218. The plank or slab of stone on which a dead body is given Ghusl,
and the cloth with which his private parts are covered, and the hands of the
person who gives Ghusl and all things washed, together with the dead body,
become Pak when Ghusl is over.
219. When a person washes something with water to make it Pak, his
hands washed along with that thing, will be Pak when the thing is Pak.
220. If cloth etc. is washed with under-Kurr water and is squeezed as
usual, allowing water to flow off, the water which still remains in it is Pak.
221. When a najis utensil is washed with under-Kurr water, the small
quantity of water left in it after spilling the water of final wash, is Pak.
Removal of Najisul Ayn
222. If body of an animal is stained with an Najisul Ayn like blood or
with something which has become najis, for example, najis water, its body
becomes Pak when the najasat disappears. Similarly, the inner parts of the human
body, for example inne r parts of mouth, or nose or inner ears become Pak, after
the najasat has disappeared. But the internal najasat, like the blood from the
gums or the teeth, does not make inner mouth najis.
Similarly, any external thing which is placed internally in the bo dy, does not become najis when it meets with the internal najasat. So if the dentures come in contact with blood from other teeth, it does not require rinsing. Of course, if it contacts najis food, it must be made Pak with water.
223. If food remains between the teeth, and blood emerges within the
mouth, the food will not be najis if it comes in contact with that blood.
224. Those parts of the lips and the eyes which overlap when shut,
will be considered as inner parts of the body, and they need not be washed when
external najasat reaches them. But a part of which one is not sure whether it is
internal or external, m ust be washed with water if it meets with external
225. If najis dust settles on a cloth or carpet, but is shaken off and
thereafter, something wet touches that cloth etc. that thing will not become
Confining (Istibra) of an animal which eats Najasat
226. The dung and urine of an animal which is habituated to eating
human excrement, is najis, and it could be made Pak by subjecting it to
"Istibra", that is, it should be prevented from eating najasat, and Pak food
should be given to it, till such ti me that it may no more be considered an
animal which eats najasat.
As a recommended precaution, the following animals should be prevented from
eating najasat for the period specified:
Camel for 40 days
Cow for 20 days
Goat/Sheep for 10 days
Water-fowl for 7 or 5 days
Domestic hen for 3 days
The period specified should be completed, even if the animals cease to be
considered as eaters of najasat earlier than that.
Disappearance of a Muslim
227. When body, dress, household utensil, carpet or any similar thing
which has been in the possession of a Muslim becomes najis, and thereafter that
Muslim disappears, the things in question can be treated as Pak, if one believes
that he may have was hed them. But the recommended precaution is that he should
not take them as Pak, except with the following conditions:
That Muslim should be believing in the najasat of an object which made his
body or dress najis. For example, if his dress with its wetness touches a
Kafir, and he does not believe a Kafir to be najis, his dress will not be
deemed Pak after his disap pearance.
That Muslim should know that his body or dress has touched a najis thing.
That the man should have been seen using that thing for a purpose which
requires it being Pak. For example, he should have been seen offering prayers
with that dress.
There should be an expectation that the Muslim knows that the condition
for the act he wants to perform is to be Pak. For example, if he does not
know that the dress of one who offers prayers should be Pak, and he offers
prayers with a najis dress, that dress cannot be considered to be Pak.
The Muslim should be conscious of the difference between najis and Pak,
and that he should not be careless about it. If he is careless, his things
will not be considered Pak.
228. If a person is certain or satisfied that a thing which was najis
has become Pak, or if two just persons testify showing why it is Pak, then that
thing is Pak. And similarly, when a person who possesses the najis thing,
reliably says that it has b ecome Pak, or when a Muslim has washed the najis
thing with water, even if it may not be known whether or not he has washed it
properly, the thing will be considered Pak.
229. If a person undertakes to wash and make Pak the dress of another
person and confirms having washed it, and if the other person is satisfied with
what he is told, the dress is Pak.
230. If a person is in such a mental state that he can never be
certain about a najis thing becoming Pak, he should follow the method used by
the common people.
Draining of blood from the slaughtered animal
231. As stated in rule 98, if an animal is slaughtered in accordance
with the rules prescribed by Islam, and blood flows out of its body in normal
quantity, the blood which still remains in the body of the animal is Pak.
232. The above rule is applicable only to an animal whose meat is
halal to eat, and does not apply to an animal whose meat is haraam. In fact, as
a recommended precaution, it does not apply to the haraam parts of the body of
an animal, whose meat is halal to eat.
Rules about Utensils
233. If a utensil is made of the hide of a dog, or a pig or the dead
animal (not slaughtered lawfully), it is haraam to eat or drink anything from
that utensil, if its najasat is caused by wetness. Also, that utensil should not
be used for Wudhu and Ghus l, and for other purposes for which only Pak things
should be used. And the recommended precaution is that the skin of a dog, or pig
or a dead animal, should not at all be used, even if it is not in the form of a
234. It is haraam to use gold and silver vessels for eating and
drinking purposes, and as an obligatory precaution, their general use is also
haraam. However, it is not haraam to have them in possession as item of
decoration, although it is better to av oid them as a precautionary measure.
Similarly, it is not haraam to manufacture gold and silver vessels, or to buy
and sell them for possession or decoration, but it is better to avoid.
235. If the clip of a tea-glass (istakaan) made of gold or silver is
classified as a utensil, it will be equivalent to a tea-glass made of gold or
silver (and it will be haraam to use it for drinking purposes). And if it (the
clip) is not classified as utensil, there is no harm in using it.
236. There is no harm in using vessels which are gold-plated or
237. There is no harm in using a utensil which is made of alloy mixed
with gold and silver, if the proportion of alloy is such that the utensil cannot
be said to be made of gold or silver.
238. If a person transfers food from the utensil made of gold or
silver into another utensil, he can eat in or from it, provided that the later
utensil is not considered as part of the package.
239. There is no harm using the tip of the pipe used in Huqqa, or the
scabbard of a sword, or knife, or the frame of the Holy Qur'an made of gold or
silver. However, the recommended precaution is that the receptacles of perfume,
or surma, or opium made o f gold or silver should not be used.
240. There is no harm in eating or drinking from gold and silver
utensils, if one is helpless and has no alternative, but he should not eat or
drink to his fill.
241. There is no harm in using a utensil, about which it is not known
whether it is made of gold or silver, or something else.