Islamic Laws

Wudhu

Introduction

242. In Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and hands, and to wipe the front portion of the head and the upper part of two feet.

243. The length of the face should be washed from the upper part of the forehead, where hair grow, up to the farthest end of the chin, and its breadth should be washed to the part covered between the thumb and the middle finger. If even a small part of this area is left out, Wudhu will be void. Thus, in order to ensure that the prescribed part has been fully washed, one should also wash a bit of the adjacent parts.

244. If the hands or the face of a person are larger or smaller than normal, he should observe how people normally wash their faces, and follow accordingly. Also, if he has hair on part of his forehead, or the frontal part of his head is bald, he should wash his forehead as is usually washed by the people.

245. If a person suspects that there is dirt or something else in the eyebrows, and corners of his eyes, and on his lips, which does not permit water to reach them, and if that suspicion is reasonable, he should examine it before performing Wudhu, and re move any such thing if it is there.

246. If the skin of the face is visible from under the hair, one should make the water reach the skin, but if it is not visible, it is sufficient to wash the hair, and it is not necessary to make the water reach beneath the hair.

247. If a person doubts whether his skin is visible from under the hair of the face or not, he should, as an obligatory precaution, wash his hair, and also make the water reach the skin.

248. While performing Wudhu, it is not obligatory that one should wash the inner parts of the nose, nor of the lips and eyes which cannot be seen when they close. However, in order to ensure that all parts have been washed, it is obligatory that some portion of these parts (i.e. inner parts of nose, lips and eyes) are also included.
And if a person did not know how much of the face should be washed, and does not remember whether he has washed his face thoroughly in Wudhu already performed, his prayer s will be valid, and there will be no need to do fresh Wudhu for the ensuing prayers.

249. The face and hands should be washed from above downwards, and if one washes the opposite way, his Wudhu will be void.

250. If a person makes his hand wet, and passes it over his face and hands, and if the moisture in the hand is enough to cover both thoroughly, it will be sufficient. It is not necessary that water flows on the face or the hands.

251. After washing the face, one should first wash the right hand and then the left hand, from the elbows to the tips of the fingers.

252. In order to ensure that each elbow has been washed thoroughly, one should include some portion above the elbow in washing.

253. If before washing his face, a person has washed his hands up to the wrist, he should, while performing Wudhu, wash them up to the tips of the fingers, and if he washes them only up to the wrist, his Wudhu is void.

254. While performing Wudhu, it is obligatory to wash the face and the hands once, and it is recommended to wash them twice. Washing them three or more times is haraam. As regards to which washing should be treated as the first, it will depend upon wa shing the face and hand thoroughly, leaving no room for precaution, with the niyyat of Wudhu.
So, if he pours water on his face ten times with the intention of the first washing, there is no harm, but when he will then wash with the niyyat of Wudhu, it wi ll be called the first time. Thus, he can go on pouring water on his face several times, and in the final wash, make the niyyat of Wudhu. But if he follows this procedure, then the face and the hands should be washed once only, as an obligatory precaution .

255. After washing both the hands, one performing Wudhu should wipe the front part of his head with the wetness which is in his hand; the recommended precaution is that he should wipe it with the palm of his right hand, from the upper part, downwards.

256. The part on which wiping should be performed, is one fourth frontal part of the head. It is sufficient to wipe as much at any place in this part of the head, although the recommended precaution is that the length should be equal to one finger, and i ts breadth should be equal to three joined fingers.

257. It is not necessary that the wiping of the head should be performed on its skin. It is also in order if a man wipes the hair on the front of his head. However, if the hair are so long that when combed they fall on his face, or on other parts of his head, he should wipe his hand on the roots of his hair, or part the hair and wipe the skin.
If a person collects his hair on the front side of his head, or on other parts of his head and wipes them, or if he wipes the hair of other places, such a wiping w ould be void.

258. After wiping the head, one should wipe with the moisture present in one's hands, one's feet from any toe of the foot up to the joint. As a recommended precaution, the right foot should be wiped with the right hand, and the left foot with the left hand.

259. Wiping of the feet can have any breadth, but it is better that the breadth of the wiping should be equal to three joined fingers, and it is still better that the wiping of the entire foot is done with the entire hand.

260. As a precaution, at the time of wiping the foot, one should place one's hand on the toes and then draw it to the joint, or that one should place the hand on the joint and draw it to the toes. One should not simply place the whole hand on the foot , and pull it a little.

261. While wiping one's hand and feet, it is necessary to move one's hand on them, and if the feet and head are moved leaving the hand stationary, Wudhu would be void. However, there is no harm if the head and feet move slightly, while the hand is be ing moved for wiping.

262. The parts of wiping should be dry, and if they are so wet that the wetness of the palm of the hand has no effect on them, the wiping will be void. However, there is no harm if the wetness on those part is so insignificant, that the moisture of th e palm overcomes it.

263. If wetness disappears in the palm, it cannot be made wet with fresh water. In that situation, the person performing Wudhu should obtain moisture from his beard. If he obtains moisture from any part other than the beard, it would be improper, and is a matter of Ishkal.

264. If the wetness of palm is just enough for wiping the head, then as an obligatory precaution, one should wipe the head first, and for the wiping of feet, the wetness should be obtained from the beard.

265. Wiping performed on socks or shoes is void. But if one is unable to remove his socks or shoes because of severe cold, or fear of life, or a robber, the obligatory precaution is that he will wipe on the socks or shoes, and then perform tayammum al so. And if a person is under Taqayya (hiding one's faith), he can perform wiping on his socks and shoes.

266. If the upper part of his feet is najis, and it cannot also be washed for wiping, one should perform tayammum.

Wudhu by Immersion (Wudhu Irtimasi)

267. Wudhu by immersion means that one should dip one's face and hands into water, with the intention of performing Wudhu. And there can be no problem in performing wiping with the moisture thus acquired, though it is against precaution.

268. Even while performing Wudhu by immersion, one should wash one's face and hand downwards from above. Hence, when a person dips his face and hands in water, with the intention of Wudhu, he should dip his face in water from the forehead and his hands f rom elbows.

269. There is no harm in performing Wudhu of some parts by immersion, and of others in the usual way.

Recommended supplications

270. It has been recommended that a person performing Wudhu should recite the following supplication when his eyes fall on water: Bismillahi wa billahi wal hamdu lil lahil lazi ja'alal ma'a tahura wa lam yaj alhu najisa. (I begin my ablution in the Name of Allah. All praise is due to Allah, Who made water purifying, and not najis).

While washing the hands before performing Wudhu, one should say: Alla hummaj alni minat tawwabina waj alni minal mutatah hirin. (O Lord! Make me of those who repent and purify themselves).

While rinsing the mouth one should say: Alla Humma laq qini hujjati yawma alqaka wa atliq lisani bizikrika. (O Lord! Dictate to me the principles of faith on the Day I meet You, and make my tongue fluent with Your remembrance).

While washing the nose one should say: Alla humma la tuharrim 'alaya rihal jannati waj 'alni mim man yashummu riha ha wa rawha ha wa tiba ha. (O Lord! Do not deprive me of the fragrance of Paradise, and make me of those who smell its fragrance and per fume).

While washing the face, one should say: Alla humma bayyiz wajhi yawma taswaddufihil wujuh wala tusawwid waj hi yawma tabyazzul wujuh. (O Lord! Make my face bright on the Day when the faces will turn dark. Do not darken my face on the Day when the face s are bright).

While pouring water over the right elbow, one should say: Alla humma a'tini kitabi bi yamini wal khulda fil jinani bi yasari wa hasibni hisaban yasira. (O Lord! Give my book of deeds in my right hand, and a permanent stay in Paradise on my left, and m ake my reckoning an easy one).

While pouring water over the left elbow, one should say: Alla humma la tutini kitabi bishimali wala min wara'i zahri wala taj alha maghlu latan ila unuqi wa a'uzu bika min muqat ta'atin niran. (O Lord! Do not give my book of deeds in my left hand, n or from behind my back, nor chain it to my neck. I seek refuge in You from the Hell-fire).

While performing the wiping of the head, one should say: Alla humma ghashshini bi rahmatika wa barakatika wa 'afwika. (O Lord! Cover me with Your Mercy, Blessings and Forgiveness).

While performing the wiping of the feet, one should say: Alla humma thabbitni alas sirati yawma tazillu fihil aqdam. Waj'al sa'yi fi ma yurzika 'anni ya zal jalali wal ikram. (O Lord! Keep me firm on the Bridge (to Paradise) on the Day when the feet will slip, and help me in my efforts to do things which will please You, O' Glorious and Mighty!).

Condition for the validity of Wudhu (13 off)

The following are the conditions for a correct Wudhu:

The first condition is that the water should be Pak, and clean, not sullied with dirt, even if that dirt is Pak.

The second condition is that the water should be pure, and not mixed.

271. Wudhu performed with najis or mixed water is void,even if one may not be aware of its being najis, or mixed, or may have forgotten about it. And if one has offered prayers with that Wudhu, one should repeat that prayers with a valid Wudhu.

272. If a person does not have any water to perform Wudhu, except that which is murky with clay, he should perform tayammum if only a short time is left for prayers; and if he has enough time at his disposal, he should wait till the water becomes lim pid, and then perform Wudhu with it.

The third condition is that the water should be Mubah (permissible for use).

273. To perform Wudhu with usurped water, or with water about which one does not know whether the owner would allow its use, is haraam, and Wudhu will be void. Furthermore, if the water of Wudhu used for washing face and hands, falls on usurped land, or if the space in which he performs Wudhu is usurped, his obligation will be to do tayammum, if he has no other place to go for Wudhu.
And if another lawful place is available, he should go there for Wudhu. And if he does Wudhu at the first place, his Wu dhu will be valid, but he will have committed a sin.

274. If a person does not know whether the pool or tank of water of a madressah has been dedicated to the general public, or exclusively to the students of madressah, there is no harm in doing Wudhu there, provided that people usually do so at that pl ace without prohibition.

275. If a person who does not wish to offer prayers in a particular mosque, is not aware whether its pool has been dedicated to the general public, or specifically to those who offer prayers in that mosque, he cannot perform Wudhu with the water of th e pool of that mosque. However, if people who do not pray in that mosque, usually perform Wudhu there, without any prohibition, he can perform Wudhu from that pool.

276. Performing Wudhu from the pools of the inns and hotels etc. by persons who are not residing there, is valid if the other persons who are not staying there usually perform Wudhu with that water, without being prohibited.

277. There is no harm if a person performs Wudhu in the water flowing in big canals, even if he does not know whether the owner of that canal would allow. But, if the owner of the canal prohibits performing Wudhu with that water, or if he is a minor, or an insane person, then as a recommended precaution, one should refrain from doing Wudhu in it.

278. If a person forgets that the water has been usurped, and performs Wudhu with it, his Wudhu is in order. But, if a person has usurped the water himself, and then forgets about it, his Wudhu with that water will be void.

The fourth condition is that the container of the water, used by the person concerned for Wudhu, should be Mubah (permissible for use by him).

The fifth condition is that, as an obligatory precaution, the container of the water used for Wudhu should not be made of gold or silver. The details of these two rules will follow later.

279. If the water for Wudhu is in a usurped container or is in the vessels of gold and silver, and there is no other water available, he should transfer that water lawfully into another container, and then do Wudhu. If he cannot possibly do that, he s hould perform tayammum.
However, if he has other water, he should use that for Wudhu. And in either case, if he acts against the rule and performs Wudhu with the water which is either in a usurped container, or is made of gold or silver, his wudhu will be in order.

280. A pool of water which has a usurped stone or brick in it, can be used for Wudhu, if drawing water from it would not in any way amount to using that brick or stone. If it amounts to that, then drawing water will be haraam, but Wudhu will be valid.

281. If a pool or a canal is dug in the courtyards of the Shrines of Imams, or their descendents, which was previously a grave-yard, there is no harm in performing Wudhu with water of that pool or canal, if he did not know that land was previously dedica ted as a graveyard.

The sixth condition is that parts of the body on which Wudhu is performed, should be Pak, at the time of washing and wiping.

282. If the place which has been already washed or wiped in Wudhu becomes najis, before the completion of the Wudhu, it will be deemed valid.

283. If any other part of the body other than the parts of Wudhu is najis, the Wudhu will be in order. However, if the outlet of urine or excretion have not been made Pak, the recommended precaution is that one should make them Pak first, and then perfor m Wudhu.

284. If any one part of Wudhu was najis, and after performing Wudhu one doubts whether he washed it before Wudhu or not, his Wudhu will be valid. But he should wash the part which was najis.

285. If a person has a cut or wound on his face, or hands, and the blood from it does not stop, and if water is not harmful for him, he should, after washing the healthy parts of that limb in proper sequence, put the place of wound or cut in Kurr-water o r running water, and press it a little so that the blood may stop. Then he should pass his finger on the wound or cut, within the water, from above downwards, so that water may flow on it. This way his Wudhu will be in order.

The seventh condition is that the person doing Wudhu should have sufficient time at his disposal for Wudhu and namaz.

286. If the time is so short that by doing Wudhu, the entire prayers or a part of it will have to be offered after its time, he should perform tayammum. But if he feels that the time required for tayammum and Wudhu is equal, then he should do Wudhu.

287. If a person who should have performed tayammum owing to little time for namaz at his disposal, performs Wudhu with the niyyat of Qurbat, or for any Mustahab act, like, reading the holy Qur'an, his Wudhu is in order. Similarly, his Wudhu will be v alid if he did it for that namaz, as long as it was not devoid of niyyat of Qurbat.

The eighth condition is that one should perform Wudhu with the niyyat of Qurbat i.e. to obey the orders of Allah. If, a person performs Wudhu, for the purpose of cooling himself or for some other purpose, the Wudhu would be void.

288. It is not necessary that one should utter the niyyat of Wudhu in words, or think about it in his mind. It is sufficient that all the acts relating to Wudhu are performed in compliance with the order of Almighty Allah.

The ninth condition is that Wudhu should be performed in the prescribed sequence, that is, he should first wash his face, then his right hand and then his left hand, and thereafter, he should wipe his head and then the feet. As a recommended precaut ion, he should not wipe both the feet together. He should wipe the right foot first and then the left.

The tenth condition is that the acts of Wudhu should be done one after the other, without time gap in between.

289. If there is so much gap between the acts of Wudhu, that it can not be said that it is being performed in normal succession, Wudhu will be void. But if there is a justifiable excuse, like water being exhausted or forgetting, at the time of washing or wiping, he should first ensure that all the preceding parts which he had washed or wiped have not dried up.
If they have all dried up, his Wudhu will be void. But if all the parts have not dried up, then his Wudhu will be in order. For example, while washing his left arm, he finds that his right arm has dried up, but his face is still wet, his Wudhu will be valid.

290. If a person performs acts of Wudhu consecutively, but the moisture of the previous parts dries up owing to hot weather, or excessive heat of the body or any other similar cause, his Wudhu is in order.

291. There is no harm in walking while performing Wudhu. Hence, if after washing his face and hands, a person walks a few steps and then wipes his head and feet, his Wudhu is valid.

The eleventh condition is that a person doing Wudhu should wash his hands and face and wipe his head and feet himself. Hence, if another person makes him perform Wudhu, or helps him in pouring water over his face, or hands, or in wiping his head, or feet, his Wudhu is void.

292. If a person cannot perform Wudhu himself, he should appoint someone to assist him, even if it means washing and wiping jointly. And if that person demands any payment for that, he should be paid, provided one can afford, and one does not sustain a ny loss. But he should make niyyat of Wudhu himself, and should wipe using his own hands.
If the person himself cannot participate in actually doing Wudhu, and if he must be assisted by another person, then an obligatory precaution is that both should mak e the niyyat of Wudhu. Then his assistant will hold his hand, and help him do the wiping. And if that is not possible, he will take some moisture from his hands, and with that moisture wipe his hand and feet.

293. One should not obtain assistance in performing those acts of Wudhu, which one can perform alone.

The twelfth condition is that there should be no constraint for using water.

294. If a person fears that he will fall ill if he performs Wudhu, or, if water is used up for Wudhu, no water will be left for drinking, he does not have to do Wudhu. If he was unaware that water was harmful to him, and he performed Wudhu, and later on, it turned out to be harmful, his Wudhu will be void.

295. If one finds that using minimum quantity for washing the face and the hands properly, will not be harmful, he should do Wudhu by restricting himself to that quantity of water.

The thirteenth condition is that there should be no impediment in the way of water reaching the parts of Wudhu.

296. If a person finds that something has stuck to any part of Wudhu, but doubts whether it will prevent water from reaching there, he should remove that thing, or pour water under it.

297. Dirt under the fingernails would not affect Wudhu. However, when the nails are cut, and there remains dirt which prevents water from reaching the skin, then that dirt must be removed. Moreover, if the nails are unusually long, the dirt collected beneath the unusual part, ought to be cleansed.

298. If swelling takes place on the face, or hands, or the front part of the head, or the feet because of being burns or other reason, it will be sufficient to wash and wipe over the swelling. If there is an opening or hole in it, it will not be necessary to reach water under the skin.
In fact, if a part of its skin gets peeled off, it is not at all necessary to pour water under the unpeeled part. However, at times there is skin which hangs loose after having peeled off, it should be cut off, or water sh ould be poured underneath.

299. If a person doubts whether something has remained stuck to the parts of Wudhu, and if it is a doubt which is deemed sensible by the people, like, a potter doubting whether clay is stuck to his hands after his work, he should examine and clean his ha nds by scrubbing etc, till he is sure that there are no remnants, and that water will reach there.

300. If there is dirt on the part of Wudhu which will not prevent water reaching the body while washing or wiping, the Wudhu will be in order. Similarly, if some white lime splashed from the whitewash stays on the body, not obstructing water from reachin g it, Wudhu will be valid. And if one doubts whether it may obstruct, then one should remove the splashed particles.

301. If a person was aware before performing Wudhu, that on some parts of Wudhu, there is something which could prevent water from reaching them, but if he doubts after performing Wudhu whether water reached those parts or not, his Wudhu will be valid .

302. If on some part of Wudhu, there is an obstruction which at times allows water to reach the skin and at times does not, and if he doubts after having performed Wudhu about water having reached the skin, as a recommended precaution, he should repeat the Wudhu, particularly if he had not been mindful about ensuring that water reaches.

303. If after Wudhu a person finds something on the parts of Wudhu which prevents water from reaching the skin, not knowing whether it was present at the time of Wudhu, or it appeared later, his Wudhu would be in order. But if he knows that at the ti me of Wudhu he was not bothered about that obstruction, then the recommended precaution is that he should repeat Wudhu.

304. If a person doubts after Wudhu whether any obstruction was there or not, his Wudhu will be valid.

Rules regarding Wudhu

305. If a person doubts too often about the acts of Wudhu and its conditions, like, about water being Pak, or its not being usurped, he should not pay any heed to such doubt.

306. If a person doubts whether his Wudhu has become void, he should treat it as valid. But, if he did not perform Istibra (rule no. 73) after urinating, and performed Wudhu, and thereafter some fluid was discharged about which he was not sure whether it was urine or something else, his Wudhu will be void.

307. If a person doubts whether he has performed Wudhu or not, he should perform Wudhu.

308. If a person is sure that he has performed Wudhu, and has also committed an act which invalidates Wudhu (e.g. urinating), but does not remember which happened first, he should act as follows:

If this situation arises before his Namaz, he should perform Wudhu.

If it arises during Namaz, he should break it and perform Wudhu.

If it arises after Namaz, that Namaz will be valid, but for the next prayers, however, he should perform Wudhu.

309. If after or during Wudhu, a person becomes sure that he has not washed certain parts or has not wiped them, and if the moisture of the parts preceding them has dried up due to lapse of time, he should perform Wudhu again. And if the moisture has not dried up, or has dried up owing to hot weather, or other similar causes, he should wash or wipe the forgotten part as well as the parts which follow. Similarly, if during Wudhu he doubts whether he has washed or wiped a part or not, he should follow the same rule as above.

310. If a person doubts after namaz, whether he performed Wudhu or not, the prayers offered by him would be in order. As far the next prayers, he should perform Wudhu.

311. If a person doubts during namaz whether he has performed Wudhu, his prayers is void, and he should perform Wudhu and then pray.

312. If a person realises after offering prayers, that his Wudhu became void, but doubts whether it became void before namaz or after, the prayers offered by him will be deemed in order.

313. If a person suffers from an incontinence, due to which drops of urine come out continuously, or he is not in a position to control his bowels, he should act as follows:

If he is sure that at some time during the prayer time, there will be a respite during which there will be a restraint, then he should perform Wudhu and namaz at such time.

If during the restraint, he can control his urine or excretion only for performing Wajib acts of namaz, then he should perform only obligatory acts, and abandon the Mustahab acts (e.g. Adhan, Iqamah, Qunut etc).

314. If the time of restraint is just enough to allow Wudhu and a part of namaz, and if he discharges urine or excretion once, or several times during namaz, then as an obligatory precaution, he should do Wudhu in those moments of respite and pray.
It will not be necessary for him to renew the Wudhu during namaz because of discharging urine or excretion, though as a recommended precaution, he should keep a container by his side, make Wudhu everytime he discharges, and continue praying. But this last p recaution would not apply, if due to prolonged discharge or renewal of Wudhu, the mode of prayers changes.

315. If there is a continued incontinence, allowing no period of restraint for Wudhu, or even a part of namaz, then one Wudhu for every namaz will undoubtedly be enough. In fact, one Wudhu will be enough for several namaz, except when one commits any extraneous act, invalidating the Wudhu.
However, it is recommended that he should do a fresh Wudhu for every namaz. But a fresh Wudhu is not necessary for the Qadha of a forgotten Sajdah, or Tashahhud, nor for the prayers of Ihtiyat.

316. It is not necessary for a person suffering from continued incontinence, to pray immediately after Wudhu, although it is better that he should be quick in offering prayers.

317. It is permissible for a person suffering incontinence to touch the script of the Qur'an, after Wudhu, even if he is not in the state of namaz.

318. A person who cannot control urine, should use a bag filled with cotton or some similar device, to protect oneself, and to prevent urine from reaching other places, and the obligatory precaution is that before every namaz, he should wash the outlet o f urine which has become najis.
Moreover, a person who cannot control excretion should, if possible, prevent it from reaching other parts, at least during the time required for namaz. And the obligatory precaution is that if no hardship is involved, he sh ould wash the anus for every prayers.

319. A person who suffers from incontinence should, if possible, try to restrain himself at least for the duration of namaz, even if may be difficult. In fact, if his ailment can be treated easily, he should get the necessary treatment .

320. If a person who suffered incontinence, recovers from the ailment, it is not necessary for him to repeat those prayers which he offered according to his religious duty, during the period of his ailment. However, if he recovers during namaz, he sho uld repeat that prayers, as an obligatory precaution.

321. If a person suffers from an incontinence, which renders him unable to control passing the wind, he will act according to the rules applicable to the incontinent persons described in the foregoing.

Things for which Wudhu is obligatory

322. It is obligatory to perform Wudhu for the following six things:

For all obligatory prayers, except Namaz-e-Mayyit. As regards Mustahab prayers, Wudhu is a condition for their validity.

For the Sajdah and Tashahhud which a person forgot to perform during the prayers, provided that he invalidated his Wudhu after namaz, and before performing those forgotten acts. It is not obligatory to perform Wudhu for Sajdatus sahw.

For the obligatory Tawaf of the holy Ka'bah.

If a person has made a Nadhr, or a solemn pledge, or taken an oath for Wudhu.

If a person has made a Nadhr, for example, that he would kiss the Holy Qur'an.

For washing and making Pak the holy Qur'an which has become najis, or for taking it out from lavatory etc. in which it has fallen, when he becomes obliged to touch the script of the holy Qur'an with his hand, or some other part of his body.
But if t he delay by making Wudhu causes further desecration of the holy Qur'an, one should take it out from lavatory etc., or make it Pak, without performing Wudhu.

323. It is haraam to touch the script of the holy Qur'an with any part of one's body, without performing Wudhu. However, there is no harm in touching the translation of the holy Qur'an, in any language, without Wudhu.

324. It is not obligatory to prevent a child or an insane person from touching the script of the holy Qur'an. However, if their touching the holy Qur'an violates its sanctity, they should be prevented from touching it.

325. It is haraam, as an obligatory precaution, to touch the Name of Allah or His special Attributes without Wudhu, in whichever language they may have been written. And it is also better not to touch, without Wudhu, the names of the holy Prophet of Isla m, the holy Imams and Janabe Fatima Zahra (peace be upon them).

326. If a person performs Wudhu or Ghusl before the time for prayers, in order to be in state of purity, they will be deemed valid. And even if he performs Wudhu near the time of namaz, with the niyyat of preparing himself for namaz, there is no objectio n.

327. If a person believes that the time for prayers has set in, and makes the niyyat of Wajib Wudhu, and then realises after performing the Wudhu that the time for the prayers had not set in, his Wudhu is in order.

328. Wudhu is Mustahab for the following purposes:

Namaz-e-Mayyit.

Visiting the graves.

Entering a mosque.

Entering the Shrines of the holy Prophets and Imams (A.S.).

For reading, writing, or touching the margin or border of the holy Qur'an, or for keeping it with oneself.

Before going to bed for sleep. It is also Mustahab that a person already in Wudhu, should perform a fresh Wudhu for every namaz.

If he has performed Wudhu for any one of the above purposes, he can commit all acts which require Wudhu. For example, he can even pray with that Wudhu.

Things which invalidate Wudhu

329. Wudhu becomes void on account of the following seven things:

Passing of urine.

Excretion.

Passing wind from the rear.

A sleep, deep enough to restrict sight and hearing. However, if the eyes do not see anything, but the ears can hear, Wudhu does not become void.

Things on account of which a person loses his sensibility, like insanity, intoxication or unconsciousness.

Istihaza – which will be dealt with later.

Janabat, and, as a recommended precaution, every state which requires Ghusl.

Jabira Wudhu

The splint with which a wound or a fractured bone is bandaged or held tight and the medication applied to a wound etc. is called jabira.

330. If there is a wound, or sore, or a fractured bone in the parts on which Wudhu is performed, and if it is not bandaged, then one should perform Wudhu in the usual manner, if the use of water is not harmful.

331. If there is an unbandaged wound, sore, or broken bone in one's face or hands, and if the use of water is harmful for it, one should wash the parts adjoining the wound from above downwards, in the usual manner of Wudhu. And it is better to pass wet h and on it, if it is not harmful to do so. Therefore, he should place a Pak piece of cloth on it, and pass a wet hand over that cloth. But in the case of a fracture, tayammum must be performed.

332. If there is an unbandaged wound, or sore or fractured bone on the front part of the head, or on the feet, and he cannot wipe it, because the wound has covered the entire part of wiping, or if he cannot wipe even the healthy parts, then it is nece ssary for him to do tayammum.
And as a recommended precaution, he should also perform Wudhu, keeping a piece of Pak cloth on the wound etc. and wipe that cloth with the moisture of Wudhu in his hands.

333. If the sore, or wound, or fractured bone is bandaged, and if it is possible to undo it, and if water is not harmful for it, one should untie it and then do Wudhu, regardless of whether the wound etc. is on his face and hands, or on the front part of his head or on his feet.

334. If the wound, or sore, or the fractured bone which has been tied with a splint or a bandage is on the face or the hands of a person, and if undoing it and pouring water on it is harmful, he should wash the adjacent parts which is possible to wash, a nd then wipe the Jabira.

335. If it is not possible to untie the bandage of the wound, but the wound and the bandage on it are Pak, and if it is possible to make water reach the wound without any harm, water should be made to reach the wound by pouring from above downward. And i f the wound or its bandage is najis, but it is possible to wash it, and to make water reach the wound, then he should wash it and should make water reach the wound at the time of Wudhu. And if water is not harmful for the wound, but it is not possible to make water reach it, or the wound is najis and cannot be washed, he should perform tayammum.

336. If the jabira covers some of the parts of Wudhu, then Wudhu prescribed for Jabira is enough. But if all the parts of Wudhu are totally covered in Jabira, then, as a precaution, one should do tayammum, and also do Wudhu as per rules of Jabira.

337. It is not necessary that jabira should be made of things which are permissible in namaz. For example, if it is of silk, or even of the parts of an animal whose meat is haraam to eat, it is permissible to perform wiping on it.

338. If a person has jabira on his palm and fingers, and he passes a wet hand on it while performing Wudhu, he can do the wiping of his head and feet with the same wetness.

339. If the jabira has covered the entire surface of the foot, but a part from the side of the fingers, and a part from the upper side of the foot is open, one should do wiping on the foot at the open places, and also on the surface of the jabira.

340. If a person has several jabiras on his face or hands, he should wash the places between them, and if the jabiras are on the head or on the feet, he should wipe the places between them. And as for the places where there are jabiras, he should act acc ordingly to the rules of jabira.

341. If the jabira has covered unusually more space than the size of the wound, and it is difficult to remove it, then one should perform tayammum, except when the jabira is at the places of tayammum itself, in which case, it is necessary that he shou ld perform both Wudhu and tayammum.
And in both the cases, if it is possible to remove the jabira he should remove it. Then, if the wound is on the face and hands, he should wash its sides, and if they are on the head or the feet, he should wipe its corne rs. As for the wounds themselves, he will act according to the rules of jabira.

342. If there is no wound or fractured bone in the parts of Wudhu, but the use of water is harmful for some other reason, one should perform tayammum.

343. If a person has got his vein opened on any one of the parts of Wudhu, and he cannot wash it, he must perform tayammum. But if water is harmful for it, then he should act as rules of jabira.

344. If something is stuck on the part of Wudhu or Ghusl, and it is not possible to remove it, or its removal involves unbearable pain, then one should perform tayammum. But, if the thing which is stuck is a medicine, then rules relating to jabira wi ll apply to it.

345. In all kinds of Ghusls, except the Ghusl of Mayyit, the jabira Ghusl is like jabira Wudhu. However, in such cases one should resort to Ghusl-e-tartibi. If there is a wound, or a sore on the body, then a person has a choice between Ghusl and tayammum. If he decides to do Ghusl, and if there is no jabira on the place, the recommended precaution is that he should place a Pak piece of cloth on the unbandage d wound, or sore, and wipe over that cloth.
However, if there is fractured bone in the body, he should do Ghusl and should, as a precautionary measure, also perform wiping on the jabira. And if it is not possible to wipe on the jabira, or if the fractured bone is not in splint, it is necessary for him to perform tayammum.

346. If the obligation of a person is to do tayammum, and if at some of the places of tayammum he has wound, sore, or fractured bone, he should perform jabira tayammum according to the rules of jabira Wudhu.

347. If a person who has to pray with jabira wudhu or jabira Ghusl, knows that his excuse will not be removed till the end of time for namaz, he can offer prayers in the prime time. But if he hopes that his excuse will be removed before the end of nam az time, it is better for him to wait, and if his excuse is not removed by then, he should offer prayers with jabira Wudhu or jabira Ghusl.
And if, however, he prayed in the prime time, and his excuse was removed before the end of namaz time, the recommen ded precaution is he should do Wudhu or Ghusl, and repeat the prayers.

348. If a person has to keep his eye lashes stuck together because of some eye disease, he should perform tayammum.

349. If a person cannot decide whether he should perform tayammum or jabira Wudhu, the obligatory precaution is that he should perform both.

350. The prayers offered with jabira Wudhu are valid, and that Wudhu can be valid for later prayers also.