Islamic Laws

Qadha prayers

1379. A person who does not offer his daily prayers within time, should offer qadha prayers even if he slept, or was unconscious during the entire time prescribed for the prayers.
Similarly, qadha must be given for all other obligatory prayers, if they are not offered within time, and as an obligatory precaution, this includes those namaz which one makes obligatory upon oneself by Nazr, to offer within a fixed period. But the prayers of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha have no qadha, and the ladies who have to leave out daily prayers, or any other obligatory prayers, due to Haidh or Nifas, do not have to give any qadha for them.

1380. If a person realises after the time for the prayers has lapsed, that the prayers which he offered in time was void, he should perform its qadha prayers.

1381. A person having qadha prayers on him, should not be careless about offering them, although it is not obligatory for him to offer it immediately.

1382. A person who has qadha prayers on him, can offer Mustahab prayers.

1383. If a person suspects that he might have qadha on him, or that the prayers offered by him were not valid, it is Mustahab that, as a measure of precaution, he should offer their qadha.

1384. It is not necessary to maintain sequential order in the offering of qadha, except in the case of prayers for which order has been prescribed, like, Zuhr and Asr prayers or Maghrib and Isha prayers of the same day. However, it is better to maintain order in other qadha prayers also.

1385. If a person wishes to offer some qadha prayers for other than the daily prayer, like Namaz-e-Ayaat, or, for example, if he wishes to offer one daily prayer and a few other prayers, it is not necessary to maintain order in offering them.

1386. If a person forgets the sequential order of the prayers which he has not offered, it is better that he should offer them in such a way, that he would be sure that he has offered them in the order in which they lapsed.
For example, if it is obligatory for him to offer one qadha prayer of Zuhr and one of Maghrib, and he does not know which of them lapsed first he should first offer one qadha for Maghrib and thereafter one Zuhr prayer, and then one Maghrib once again, or he should offer one Zuhr prayer and then one Maghrib prayer, and then one Zuhr prayer once again, so that he is sure that the qadha prayers which lapsed first has been offered first.

1387. If Zuhr prayers of one day and Asr prayers of another day, or two Zuhr prayers or two Asr prayers of a person becomes qadha, and if he does not know which of them lapsed first, it will be sufficient if he offers two prayers of four Rak'ats each, with the niyyat that the first is the qadha prayer of the first day, and the second is the qadha prayer of the second day.

1388. If one Zuhr prayer and one Isha prayer, or one Asr prayer and one Isha prayer of a person become qadha, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, it is better that he should perform their qadha in a way that would ensure that he has maintained the order.
For example, if one Zuhr prayer and one Isha prayer have lapsed, and he does not know which of them lapsed first, he should first offer one Zuhr prayer, followed by one Isha prayer, and then one Zuhr prayer once again, or he should first offer one Isha prayer, and thereafter one Zuhr prayer, and then one Isha prayer once again.

1389. If a person knows that he has not offered a prayer consisting of four Rak'ats, but does not know whether it is Zuhr or Isha, it will be sufficient to offer a four Rak'at prayer with the niyyat of offering qadha prayer for the namaz not offered. And as far as reciting loudly or silently, he will have an option.

1390. If five prayers of a person have lapsed one after another, and he does not know which of them was first, he should offer nine prayers in order. For example, he commences with Fajr prayer and after having offered Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers, he should offer again Fajr, Zuhr, Asr and Maghrib prayers. This way he will ensure the requisite order.

1391. If a person knows that one prayer on each day has lapsed, but does not know its order, it is better that he should offer daily prayers of five days; and if his six prayers of six days have lapsed, he should offer six days' daily prayers.
Thus for every qadha prayer of an additional day, he should offer an additional day's prayers, so that he may become sure that he has offered the prayers in the same order in which they had become qadha. For example, if he has not offered seven prayers of seven days, he should perform qadha prayers of seven days.

1392. If a person has a number of Fajr or Zuhr prayers qadha on him, and he does not know their exact number, or has forgotten, for example, if he does not know whether they were three, four or five prayers, it will be sufficient if he offers the smaller number.
However, it is better that he should offer enough qadha to ensure, that he has offered all of them. For example, if he has forgotten how many Fajr prayers of his have become qadha and is certain that they were not more than ten, he should, as a measure of precaution, offer ten Fajr prayers.

1393. If a person has only one qadha prayer of previous days, it is better that he should offer it first, and then start offering prayers of that day, if the time of Fadhilat is not lost. And if he has no pending qadha of previous days, but has one or more of the same day, it is better that he should offer qadha prayers of that day before offering the present obligatory prayers, provided that, in so doing, the time of Fadhilat is not lost.

1394. If a person remembers during the prayers that one or more prayers of that same day have become qadha, or that he has to offer only one qadha prayer of the previous days, he should convert his niyyat to qadha prayers, provided that:

(a) time allows,

(b) converting the niyyat is possible,

(c) and the time of Fadhilat is not lost.

For example, if he remembers before Ruku of the third Rak'at in Zuhr that his Fajr prayers was qadha, and if the time for Zuhr is not limited, he should convert his niyyat to Fajr prayer, and complete it with two Rak'ats, and then offer Zuhr prayer. But, if the time is limited, or if he cannot convert his niyyat to qadha like, when he remembers in Ruku of the third Rak'at of Zuhr, that he has not offered the Fajr prayers, and by converting the niyyat to Fajr prayers, one Ruku which is a Rukn will increase, he should not change his niyyat to the qadha Fajr prayer.

1395. If a person is required to offer a number of qadha prayers of previous days, together with one or more prayers of that very day, and if he does not have time to offer qadha of all of them, or does not wish to offer qadha of all of them on that day, it is Mustahab to offer the qadha of that day before offering ada (the same day's) prayers, and it is better that after offering previous qadha, he should once again give qadha of that day, which he had offered earlier.

1396. As long as a person is alive, no other person can offer his qadha on his behalf, even if he himself is unable to offer them.

1397. Qadha prayers can be offered in congregation, irrespective of whether the prayers of the Imam are ada or qadha. And it is not necessary that both of them should be offering the same prayers; there is no harm if a person offers qadha Fajr prayers with the Zuhr prayer or Asr prayers of the Imam.

1398. It is recommended that a discerning child, one who can distinguish between good and evil, is made to form the habit of praying regularly, and to perform other acts of worship. In fact, it is Mustahab that he is encouraged to offer qadha prayers.

Qadha prayers of a father is obligatory on the eldest son

1399. If a person did not offer some of his obligatory prayers, and did not care to give qadha, in spite of being able to do so, after his death, it is upon his eldest son, as an obligatory precaution to perform those qadha, provided that the father did not leave them as a deliberate act of transgression. If the son cannot do so, he may hire someone to perform them. The qadha prayers of his mother is not obligatory upon him, though it is better if he performs them.

1400. If the eldest son doubts whether or not his father had any qadha on him, he is under no obligation.

1401. If the eldest son knows that his father had a certain number of qadha prayers on him, but he is in doubt whether his father offered them or not, he should offer them, as an obligatory precaution.

1402. If it is not known as to who is the eldest son of a person, it is not obligatory on anyone of the sons to offer their father's qadha prayers. However, the Mustahab precaution is that they should divide his qadha between them, or should draw lots for offering them.

1403. If a dying person makes a will that someone should be hired to offer his qadha prayers, and if the hired person performs them correctly, the eldest son will be free from his obligation.

1404. If the eldest son wishes to offer the qadha prayers of his mother, then in the matter of loud or silent recitations in namaz, he will follow the rules which apply to him. So, he should offer the qadha prayers of his mother for Fajr, Maghrib and Isha prayers loudly.

1405. If a person has to offer his own qadha prayers, and he also wishes to offer the qadha prayers of his parents, whichever he offers first will be in order.

1406. If the eldest son was minor, or insane at the time of his father's death, it will not be obligatory upon him to offer qadha of his father when he attains puberty or becomes sane.

1407. If the eldest son of a person dies before offering the qadha prayers of his father, it will not be obligatory on the second son.