Hajj Ritual

There are 13 obligatory ceremonies of Hajj:

1. Entering the state of ihrām in Mecca.

2. Staying in Arafat on the ninth of Dhu-l-Hiğğah in the time from Adh-Dhuhr until after sunset. Arafat is situated about 20 km (12 miles) away from Mecca.

3. Staying in Muzdalifah during a part of the night before

´Eid-ul-Ad'ha till sunrise. Muzdalifah is situated between Arafat and Mecca.

4. Throwing stones at the Ğamrat-ul-´Aqabah (the large pillar, which is the one nearest to Mecca, Translator's Note) in Mina on the day of ´Eid. Mina is situated about 5 (3 miles) away from Mecca.

5. The slaughter of a sacrificial animal in Mina on the day of ´Eid.

6. Shaving the head or cutting a few hairs in Mina.

On completion of these acts, everything that had been prohibited during the state of consecration is again permitted except having sexual contact, wearing perfume and – to be on the safe side (´ala-l-ahwaṯ) – hunting.

7. Ṯawāf (ṯawāf-uz-ziyārah) on returning to Mecca.

8. The prayer after ṯawāf.

9. The walk between Safa und Marwa (sa´ī). After that wearing perfume is once again allowed.

10. Ṯawāfu-n-nisā

11. The prayer after ṯawāfu-n-nisā. Thereafter, sexual intimacies are once again allowed.

12. Staying in Mina the night before the eleventh and the twelfth and, in certain circumstances, which will be explained below, also the night before the thirteenth (Dhu-l-Hiğğah).

13. Throwing stones at all three pillars on the eleventh and the twelfth and possibly on the thirteenth.

#150: The conditions for Hağğu-t-Tamattu´:

1. The intention. This means that there has to be an intention to perform Hağğu-t-Tamattu´. If the pilgrim has another intention or wavers in their intention, the pilgrimage is invalid.

2. The ´Umrah and the Hajj must be performed during the months of the Hajj season (see #139.2 above). If any part of the ´Umrah is performed before the beginning of the month of Shawwāl, the ´Umrah is invalid.

3. The ´Umrah and the Hajj have to be performed in the same year. If the ´Umrah has been completed and then the Hajj is postponed until next year, the Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ is invalid. It makes no difference whether the pilgrim remains in Mecca until the following year or returns to their home country, whether they remain in the state of consecration or leave it.

4. The state of ihrām for Hajj is assumed in Mecca itself, preferably in the Sacred Mosque. If entering it in Mecca is not possible, it may be done wherever the pilgrim is.

5. The ´Umrah and the Hajj must both be performed by the same person, either for themselves or on behalf of only one other person. It is not permitted to appoint two different representatives for a dead or living person, one performing the ´Umrah and the other performing the Hajj. Similarly, it is not permitted that someone perform the ´Umrah on behalf of one person and the Hajj on behalf of another person.

#151: If a pilgrim has completed the ceremonies of the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´, as a precautionary measure, they are not permitted to leave Mecca without having performed the Hajj.

However, if they wish to do so, even if it is not necessary, and there is no reason to fear that they would miss the Hajj and they are sure they will be able to return to Mecca in order to enter the state of consecration in time, it is evident that they are allowed to leave Mecca without being in the state of ihrām. If they are not sure, they are obligated to leave Mecca remaining in the state of consecration and then – still being in the same state of ihrām – to go to Arafat directly. Someone who has performed the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ is not permitted to omit the Hajj, even if it is an optional pilgrimage. If the pilgrim was unable to perform the Hajj, for whatever reason, they have to consider their ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ as an´Umratu-l-Mufradah by also performing Ṯawāfu-n-Nisā.

#152: A person who is obliged to perform Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ is allowed to leave Mecca before having completed the ´Umrah if they are able to return to Mecca. However, to be on the safe side (al-ahwaṯ), it is preferable not to leave Mecca.

#153: The prohibition against leaving Mecca on completion of the ´Umrah does not refer to the historical boundaries of Mecca; the new districts and suburbs are nowadays considered as part of the Holy City.

#154: If the pilgrim has left Mecca without being in the state of ihrām after having completed the ´Umrah, two situations arise:

1. The pilgrim returns to Mecca in the same month in which the ´Umrah was completed. In this case, they enter Mecca without ihrām, then assume the state of consecration for the pilgrimage and proceed to Arafat.

2. The pilgrim returns to Mecca after the expiration of the month in which they performed the ´Umrah. In this case, they have to assume the state of consecration outside of the Haram Area and perform the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ anew.

#155: If a person has pledged to perform Hağğu-t-Tamattu´, they cannot change it into Ifrād or Qirān, except for a pilgrim who starts the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ but discovers that the time is too limited to complete the ´Umrah and then begins with the Hajj. In this case, they can convert their intention into Hağğu-l-Ifrād and may perform the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah after the Hajj. The statements of the scholars differ concerning the period of time which is deemed insufficient to perform the ´Umrah, but it is evident that a change of the intention is essential if completion of the ´Umrah before noon of the ninth Dhu-l-Hiğğah would not be not possible.

#156: If the pilgrim's obligatory Hajj is Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ and before starting the ´Umrah they realize that they will not have enough time to complete it before noon of the ninth Dhu-l-Hiğğah, they are not allowed to change their intention as it is mentioned in the rule above. They have to postpone the pilgrimage until the following year.

#157: If a pilgrim enters the state of ihrām in order to perform the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ and has enough time to complete it but then delays the ṯawāf and the sa´ī deliberately until noon of the ninth Dhu-l-Hiğğah, their ´Umrah is invalid and it is evident that they cannot convert their intention into Hağğu-l-Ifrād. However, as a precautionary measure (al-ahwaṯ), they have to perform the ṯawāf, the prayer afterwards as well as the sa´ī and have to shave or cut their hair with a generally defined intention.