Mawāqīt: the Places Where The State of Consecration is Assumed
There are nine different places which are designated by Islamic law for entering the state of consecration. They are called mīqāt (plural mawāqīt).
1. Dhul-Hulaifah is located near the city of Medina and is the mīqāt for the residents of Medina and for all those who arrive via Medina. As a precautionary measure, it is preferable to assume the state of consecration in the mosque which is known as Masğidu-sh-Shağarah. It is not sufficient to enter the state of ihrām outside of the mosque, except for menstruating women.
#162: It is not permitted to delay entering into the state of consecration until having passed by Dhul-Hulaifah and to assume it in Juhfa unless there are legitimate reasons for doing so, like illness, weakness etc.
2. Wadil-Aqeeq is the mīqāt for pilgrims from Iraq and Najd and for those arriving via this location. The site consists of three parts: Maslakh, Ghamrah and Dhāt-i-'Irq.
It is ahwaṯ-ul-awlā for the pilgrim to assume the state of consecration before reaching Dhāt-i-'Irq unless they either have to hide their school of thought (madhhab) due to fear (taqīyah) or they are ill.
#163: It has been said that, in case of taqīyah, it is permitted to enter the state of consecration secretly before arriving in
Dhāt-i-'Irq without putting on the consecration clothes. The consecration clothes may be put on once one reaches this place without incurring an expiation. However, this opinion is contested (ishkāl).
3. Juhfa is the mīqāt for all pilgrims from Syria, Egypt and all the countries which are located further west, for all those who arrive via these regions and for those coming from
Dhul-Hulaifah, who did not enter the state of consecration there, whether justified or not.
4. Yalamlam is the mīqāt for the pilgrim from Yemen and for those who come through there. It is the name of a mountain.
Not only are the local mosques of the last four places mentioned regarded as mawāqīt but the places themselves. If the pilgrim is not able to identify the area properly, they may assume the state of consecration by means of a vow before arriving at the mīqāt.
6. Every site, which is located parallel to the places mentioned above, may serve as a mīqāt for those who take a route, which does not pass through one of the above-mentioned places. They should enter the state of consecration at any location, which is parallel to a mīqāt. This means that standing in this place – facing the Holy Ka´aba – there is a mīqāt on either the left or the right side which is being left behind as one proceeds to Mecca. It is sufficient to rely on normal perception in order to decide whether such a place has been reached, and it is not required that one take accurate measurements.
If someone takes a route on which there are two of these parallel-lying Mawaqit, it is ahwaṯ-ul-awlā to assume the state of consecration on arriving at the first parallel mīqāt.
7. Mecca is the mīqāt of Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ for non-residents of Mecca, of Hağğu-l-Qirān and of Hağğu-l-Ifrād for residents of Mecca and so also for those people temporarily living in Mecca.
8. The pilgrim's own home is also their mīqāt for all those whose place of residence is located nearer to Mecca than the next mīqāt. They enter the state of consecration at home and are not obligated to visit a mīqāt.
9. Every nearest place (Adna-l-hil) outside the Holy Area (Haram) like Hudaybiyyah, Ja´ranah, or Tan´eem is the mīqāt for the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah after Hağğu-l-Qirān or for Hağğu-l-Ifrād and for every ´Umratu-l-Mufradah of every pilgrim who is situated in Mecca. There is only one exception, which was explained in #140.
The Rules for the Mīqāt
#164: It is not permitted to enter the state of consecration before arriving at the specified place (mīqāt). However, there are two exceptions to this rule:
1. If a pilgrim has made a nadhr (a solemn promise in the name of Allah) to assume the state of consecration before reaching the mīqāt, it is valid. It is not necessary to renew the state of ihrām at the mīqāt or to pass the mīqāt. In fact, one is permitted to go directly to Mecca without passing through any mīqāt. In this regard, there is no difference between an optional and an obligatory pilgrimage or ´Umratu-l-Mufradah. However, if the state of consecration is for an ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´, it has to be entered during the period of the pilgrimage, as has been mentioned above.
2. If a pilgrim wishes to perform the ´Umrat-ul-Mufradah in the month of Rağab and they fear that the month will be over by the time they arrive at the mīqāt to enter the state of consecration, they are allowed to enter it before arriving at the mīqāt and it is valid as an ´Umrah in the month of Rağab, even though the ceremonies are performed in the month of
Sha´bān. In this respect, there is no difference between an optional ´Umrah and an obligatory one.
#165: The pilgrim is obligated to make sure that they have actually reached the mīqāt in order to assume the state of consecration. They have to ascertain that it is the location of the mīqāt. It is not permitted to enter the state of ihrām if there is any doubt about that.
#166: If a pilgrim made a nadhr (a solemn promise in the name of Allah) to enter the state of consecration before reaching the mīqāt but nevertheless enters it there, their ihrām is valid. However, they have to pay a kaffārah (atonement) for not keeping their nadhr if it was done on purpose.
#167: Just as one is not permitted to assume the state of consecration before arriving at the mīqāt, one is also not allowed to enter the state of ihrām after having left the mīqāt. A person who intends to perform the pilgrimage or an ´Umrah or to enter Mecca is not permitted to pass the mīqāt without having assumed the state of consecration, even if there will be another mīqāt on the way. If a pilgrim passes by a mīqāt, they have to return to it and to assume the state of ihrām if this is possible.
There is an exception for those who pass Dhul-Hulaifah and proceed to Juhfa without entering the state of consecration, although they have no excuse. In this case, it is sufficient for them to assume the state of ihrām in Juhfa, but it is a neglect of duty. As a precautionary measure, one should not pass by a place that is located parallel to a mīqāt without entering the state of consecration unless there is yet another mīqāt or a parallel-lying place on the way. If a person did not intend to perform the pilgrimage or to enter Mecca, e.g. someone who had something to do outside of the Holy Area (Haram) and later sets the intention to enter the Holy Area after having already passed the mīqāt, they are permitted to assume the state of ihrām for the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah right outside the Haram.
#168: If a pilgrim passes a mīqāt deliberately without assuming the state of ihrām, two different situations arise:
1. If they are able to return to the mīqāt in order to enter the state of consecration there, they have to do so, regardless of whether or not they had already entered the Haram. Their pilgrimage is valid.
2. If they are not able to return to the mīqāt, regardless of whether they are already inside the Haram or still outside it, their pilgrimage is invalid. The following year, they have to perform the pilgrimage if they have the means to do so.
#169: If a pilgrim fails to assume the state of consecration because of an oversight or a similar reason or due to ignorance of that rule or of the mīqāt, four different situations arise:
1. If they are able to return to the mīqāt, they have to do so in order to assume the state of ihrām there.
2. If they have already entered the Haram and it is not possible to return to the mīqāt but they are able to leave the Haram Area, they have to do so and to assume the state of consecration outside of the Haram. In doing so, it is recommended that they get as far away as possible from the Haram Area to enter the state of ihrām.
3. If they are already inside the Haram Area and cannot possibly leave it, they have to assume the state of consecration wherever they may be, even if they have already entered Mecca.
4. If they are outside the Haram Area but they are not able to return to the mīqāt, as a precaution, they should get as close to the mīqāt as possible and assume the state of consecration there.
In all these four situations, the pilgrimage is valid if the pilgrim acts in accordance with what was stated above. The pilgrimage is also valid for those who accidentally or unknowingly entered the state of consecration before reaching or after leaving the mīqāt.
#170: If a menstruating woman has not assumed the state of consecration at the mīqāt because of ignorance of the mīqāt rule and enters the Holy Area, she has to leave the Haram and assume the state of ihrām outside it if she is not able to return to the mīqāt. In such a case, it is preferable to go as far away from the Haram as possible and then to assume the state of consecration if she does not fear that she might miss the pilgrimage in doing so. If she is unable to leave the Haram Area, she should assume the state of ihrām inside the Haram.
#171: If the ´Umrah becomes void, including by reason of an invalid state of ihrām, it has to be repeated if possible. If this is not possible due to time constraints, the obligatory pilgrimage becomes invalid and has to be performed again the following year.
#172: A group of scholars has declared that the ´Umrah is still valid if the pilgrim’s not being in the state of consecration was due to ignorance or through an oversight. This opinion (ishkāl) has been contested, and to be on the safe side in this case, the ´Umrah ought to be repeated as soon as possible.
#173: If a pilgrim comes from afar, they have to assume the state of consecration for the ´Umrah at one of the five mīqāt places. If one of is on their route, there is no problem. Otherwise, as often happens these days, because most people land in Jeddah, which is not a mīqāt, the pilgrim has three options:
1. They can make a nadhr (solemn promise) to assume the state of ihrām in their country or even during the flight before flying past a mīqāt. In this case, it would only be problematic for men if they were travelling in the daytime or in the rain since the plane would protect them from the sun and/or the rain. (Protecting oneself both from the sun and the rain is not permitted whilst being in the state of ihrām. Translator's Note)
2. If they land in Jeddah without being in the state of consecration, they may visit one of the mīqāt places or a parallel-lying location in order to assume the state of ihrām there. They may also enter the state of consecration at a place which is located behind the mīqāt if it is easier to get there, e.g. Rabigh which is located on the route to Medina, by making a nadhr (solemn promise), because Juhfa is not easy to get to.
3. If they land in Jeddah and had intended to proceed to a mīqāt from there but discover that they are unable to do so, they are allowed to assume the state of consecration in Jeddah by means of a nadhr. In this case they need not renew their state of ihrām before entering the Haram Area.
#174: As aforementioned, one must assume the state of consecration for the Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ in Mecca. If a pilgrim knowingly does so elsewhere, their state of ihrām is void. They have to assume the state of ihrām once again in Mecca or else their Hajj is invalid.
#175: If the pilgrim forgets to assume the state of consecration for Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ in Mecca, they are obliged to return to Mecca if possible. Otherwise they have to enter the state of ihrām wherever they remember to do so, even if they have already reached Arafat, and hence their Hajj is valid. This applies also for those who did so because of ignorance.
#176: If a pilgrim forgets to enter the state of ihrām and does not remember it until after having completed all the rituals, their Hajj is valid. This applies also for those who did so because of ignorance.