Hajj Ritual

Kaffārah (Penalty) for Hunting

#207: As a precautionary measure, the penalty for killing an ostrich is a camel; for killing a wild cow, it is a cow; and for killing a wild donkey or a zebra, it is a cow. The penalty for killing a gazelle or a hare is a sheep. As a precaution, the same penalty applies to killing a fox.

#208: If the penalty for the animal killed is a camel, but the person responsible is unable to slaughter one, the obligation is to feed sixty poor people, each of whom should be given a mudd (that is approx. 750 grams / 26.5 oz.) of food. If this is not possible, the obligation is to fast eighteen days. If the penalty is to slaughter a cow, but this is not possible, the obligation is to feed thirty poor people. If these costs cannot be met, the obligation is to fast for nine days. If the kaffārah consists of a sheep and it is not possible to slaughter one, the obligation is to feed ten needy people, and, if this is not possible, the person concerned has to fast for three days.

#209: If someone kills a sandgrouse, a partridge, a hazel grouse or the like, the atonement they have to make is a lamb that has already been weaned and feeds on grass. The penalty for killing a sparrow, a lark or a similar bird is a mudd (750 grams /26.5 oz.) of food. Killing other birds such as pigeons entails expiation through slaughtering a sheep. The penalty for killing their brood (young birds) is a lamb or young goat. If their eggs were broken, the compensation consists of one Dirham (3.456 grams / 0.12 oz.of silver) if there was no embryo inside. Otherwise, the same rule applies as for young birds. The expiation that has to be made for killing a grasshopper is one date or one handful of food (half a mudd). If several were killed, the fine consists of one handful of food. If the act is repeated, the kaffārah has to be repeated, too. If many grasshoppers were killed, the atonement is a sheep.

#210: The fine for killing a jerboa, a hedgehog, a lizard or the likes consists of a young goat and that for a gecko is a handful of food.

#211: If a person deliberately kills a wasp, their expiation consists of sharing out some food. However, if it was done from necessity, no penalty is due.

#212: If a person who is in the state of ihrām hunts down an animal outside the Haram Area, they have to make amends or – if it is not specified – pay the market price of the animal. If a person who is not in the state of consecration hunts down an animal inside the Haram Area, they have to pay the market value of the animal, except for a lion for which – as a precaution – the penalty consists of a ram. If a person who is in the state of ihrām hunts down an animal inside the Haram Area, they have the obligation to pay both the atonement and the market price.

#213: A pilgrim has the obligation to avoid those paths on which there are grasshoppers. If this is not possible and some of them get killed, there are no objections.

#214: If a group of pilgrims collectively kills an animal while they are in the state of consecration, each one of them is liable for the payment of the expiation, that means, that every single one of them has to pay the penalty.

#215: The atonement for eating the animal that was hunted down is the same as for killing it. Thus, if a pilgrim who is in the state of ihrām hunts an animal and then eats it, they must perform the expiation twice.

#216: If a pilgrim who is not in the state of consecration enters the Holy Area bringing with them a hunted animal, they have to set it free immediately. If they do not do so and the animal dies, they are responsible for paying the penalty. The same rule applies if the hunting took place before the pilgrim entered the state of ihrām and the animal dies while the pilgrim is in the state of consecration, that is, as a precautionary measure

(´ala-l-ahwaṯ), the atonement has to be paid, even if they do not enter the Holy Area.

#217: There is no difference in the expiation for hunting or for eating a hunted animal, regardless of whether it was done deliberately, accidentally (by mistake) or out of ignorance.

#218: If a pilgrim repeatedly hunts during the same state of consecration, the expiation has to be repeated as well. This applies when it happened out of ignorance, by mistake or out of necessity. The same rule applies if a pilgrim who is not in the state of consecration deliberately hunts inside the Haram Area. However, if a pilgrim deliberately and on purpose repeatedly hunts during the same state of ihrām, the expiation has to be paid only once.

O believers, slay not the game while you are in pilgrim sanctity; whosoever of you slays it wilfully, there shall be recompense — the like of what he has slain, in flocks as shall be judged by two men of equity among you, an offering to reach the Ka´aba; or expiation — food for poor persons or the equivalent of that in fasting, so that he may taste the mischief of his action. God has pardoned what is past; but whoever offends again, God will take vengeance on him, God is All-mighty, Vengeful.

(The Holy Qur'an, 5:95, Translation of A. J. Arberry)