21. Seeking Shelter From the Sun and the Rain (This Applies to Men)
#269: There are two kinds of shelter:
1. Portable shelter by means of an umbrella, the roof of a car or by sitting in an airplane is not allowed. However, it is permitted to stay in the shade of a moving cloud.
It is apparent, that there is no objection if the shadow of a moving object is cast on the pilgrim, even if it constantly moves along with him, e.g. a car driving slowly.
2. Staying in the shade of immobile objects like walls, tunnels, trees, mountains etc. It is clear that this is permitted for a pilgrim who is in the state of ihrām, regardless of whether he is driving, on horseback or walking. There is no objection to a pilgrim protecting himself with his bare hands from the sun, although it is advisable – as a precaution – to refrain from doing so.
#270: This prohibition for men refers only to the protection from sun and rain, not from wind, cold and heat, although it is better to include those as well. Therefore, a muhrim is permitted to make use of a car with a roof at night. As a precautionary measure, when he does so, it should not be raining but the roof may protect him from the wind.
#271: The prohibition against taking shelter in the shade, as mentioned above, pertains to motion, when he is underway. If a pilgrim who is in the state of consecration arrives at a place in order to rest or to meet someone, there is no objection to him staying in the shade.
#272: There is no objection to women or children sheltering in the shade, and even men can do so if it is necessary.
#273: The kaffārah for sheltering from the sun or rain without permission is one sheep, regardless of whether it was done out of necessity or not. If it is done repeatedly, as a precaution, one sheep for each day on which it happened should be sacrificed. However, it is apparent that the obligation involves the payment of just one penalty for the entire state of consecration.