The Stay in Muzdalifah
The third obligation:
The third obligation of the Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ is the stay at Muzdalifah which is also known as Al-Mash´aril-Harām. The boundaries within which the stay is deemed valid extend from
Al-Ma´zamain to Al-Hiād and to Wādi Muhassir. If it is not possible to stay within these boundaries because of overcrowding or due to lack of time, it is possible to climb Ma'zamain. The stay has to be performed with the intention of attaining closeness to Allah.
#372: If the pilgrim leaves Arafat, they have to spend a part of the night till the early morning in Muzdalifah. As a precaution, they should stay there until sunrise, although it is apparent that they are allowed to start their journey from Muzdalifah to the valley of Muhassir before sunrise. However, they are not permitted to traverse the valley and to enter Mina before sun-up.
#373: Those who are able to do so have the obligation to stay in Muzdalifah for the stipulated period of time. However, the ritual is based simply on staying there for some time. Therefore, if the pilgrim stays in Muzdalifah for some time during the night prior to the festival and leaves for Mina before daybreak, their Hajj is valid, but if they did so on purpose, they are liable to the penalty of slaughtering a sheep. If they did so out of ignorance the penalty is remitted.
However, if they stay for a while in Muzdalifah – not during the night but between dawn and sunrise – their Hajj is valid even if they did so on purpose. In this case, no penalty is due although it is an offense.
#374: There is an exception of the above-mentioned rule for people who are afraid, for women, children, the weak, the aged, the sick and those caring for them.
They are permitted to leave Muzdalifah at night after staying there only for a short period of time (during the night prior to the festival) and to betake themselves to Mina before dawn (Al-Fağr).
#375: The stay has to be made with the intention of attaining closeness to Allah and the pilgrim has to be fully aware, as was defined above with regard to the stay at Arafat.
#376: If a pilgrim forgets to stay in Muzdalifah during the specified period of time (during the night and between dawn and sunrise) or they are not able to stay there because of other reasons, they have to perform the so-called alternative stay on the day of the festival in the time from sunrise to the beginning of the noon prayer. If they also fail to perform the alternative stay, their Hajj is invalid.
Additional Rules for the Stay (in Arafat and Muzdalifah)
As mentioned earlier, there are regular and alternative time frames for staying in Arafat and Muzdalifah. If the pilgrim performs each stay at the regular time, no difficulties arise. If this is not the case, the following situations can arise:
First: If the pilgrim does not fulfill either of the two stays during the regular or during the alternative period of time, their Hajj is void. If this is the case, the pilgrim must change their ihrām into one for the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah. Furthermore, they must make the pilgrimage at a later date if it was Hağğatu-l-Islām and if they are still able to do so, in terms of finances and health.
Second: If the pilgrim stays at Arafat during the regular time and in Muzdalifah during the alternative time, their Hajj is valid without any doubt.
Third: If the pilgrim stays during the alternative time frame at Arafat and during the regular time in Muzdalifah, their Hajj is valid without doubt.
Fourth: If the pilgrim stays at both places during the alternative period of time, their Hajj is valid, but as a precaution
(al-ahwaṯ), they should repeat it at a later date, as was described under the first situation.
Fifth: If the pilgrim only manages to stay in Muzdalifah and does so during the regular time, their Hajj remains valid.
Sixth: If the pilgrim only manages to stay in Muzdalifah but does so during the alternative time, it is evident that their Hajj is invalid and has to be changed into ´Umratu-l-Mufrada.
Seventh: If they only manage to stay in Arafat and do so within the regular time frame, their Hajj is clearly invalid and has to be changed into ´Umratu-l-Mufrada. There is an exception of the rule if they happen to have come through Muzdalifah during the regular time while on their way to Mina but did not stay there due to ignorance of that rule. Then it is obvious, that their Hajj is valid if they performed dhikr (remembrance of Allah) while traversing Muzdalifah.
Eighth: If the pilgrim only managed to stay in Arafat and did so during the alternative time, their Hajj is invalid and has to be changed into ´Umratu-l-Mufrada.