Various Kinds of ´Umrah
#135: As with the pilgrimage, there is an obligatory ´Umrah and an optional one. A distinction is made between ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ and ´Umratu-l-Mufradah.
#136: Like the pilgrimage, the ´Umrah is an obligation for everyone who meets the conditions and who can provide the means for it. Just as the obligatory pilgrimage becomes an obligation the moment the necessary funds are obtained, the ´Umrah becomes an obligation if the performance of the pilgrimage is not possible. Hence someone who is already performing Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ is not bound to make a separate ´Umrah.
If a representative performs all the obligatory ceremonies for the principal, they are not obligated to perform the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah on their own behalf, even if they had the possibility to do so, although, as a precautionary measure, it is better to do so.
#137: It is recommended that the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah be performed in every month of the year. Only one such pilgrimage is allowed per month, which does not mean that there have to be 30 days in between the two rituals. Thus it is permitted to undertake an ´Umrah at the end of a month and the next one at the beginning of the following month. It is not permitted to perform the ´Umrah twice in one month if it is being made on behalf of the same person.
This means that if someone who has performed the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah subsequently wants to undertake the ´Umratu-t- Tamattu´, to be on the safe side, they should not take place in the same month. Two ´Umrahs for two different people in the same month are permitted.
But it is not permissible to perform an ´Umrah between the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ and the obligatory pilgrimage, because this would render the ´Umratu-t- Tamattu´ invalid. However, if the pilgrim remains in Mecca until the 8th Dhu-l-Hiğğah and starts performing the Hajj, the second ´Umrah (the one in between ´Umratu-t- Tamattu´ and Hajj, Translator's Note) counts as ´Umratu-t- Tamattu´.
#138: Just as performing the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah becomes an obligation once the necessary funds are acquired, it can also become obligatory as a result of responsibilities that arise from vows, oaths or promises.
#139: ´Umratu-l-Mufradah and ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ differ in the following ways:
1. Performing ṯawāf-un-nisā is an obligation during the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah but not during the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´.
2. The performance of the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ is limited to the season of Hajj, namely the months of Shawwāl, Dhu-l-
Qā´idah and Dhu-l-Hiğğah, whereas the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah can be performed during any month of the year, preferably during Rağab.
3. After performing the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´, the state of ihrām can only be terminated by trimming the hair of the head (taqsīr), whereas in case of the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah this can be achieved by either trimming the hair of the head (taqsīr) or by shaving the head, but shaving is preferable.
4. It is an obligation to perform the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´
(as part of a Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ pilgrimage) and the obligatory pilgrimage in the same year. However, this does not apply for the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah. If someone is obligated to perform Hağğu-l-Ifrād, they are permitted to undertake the pilgrimage in one year and the ´Umrah in another year.
5. If a person intentionally has sexual intercourse with their spouse during the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah before walking between Safa and Marwa, their ´Umrah becomes void and they are obligated to repeat it, that is, they must remain in Mecca until the following month in order to perform it once again.
If this happens during the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´, see the explanation in #220.
#140: For the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah and the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ the state of consecration has to be assumed at the mīqāt, as will be explained below. If the person concerned is in Mecca and intends to perform ´Umratu-l-Mufradah, they are permitted to go outside of the Haram Area and to enter the state of consecration. They are not obliged to go to a mīqāt. The places that are usually chosen are Al-Hudaybiyyah,
Ad-Ǧu´rānah or At-Tan´īm. (In this case, any place outside the Haram Area may serve the pilgrim as a mīqāt. This applies also to those arriving in Mecca. Translator's Note.) The only exception to this rule is if the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah becomes invalid because of having sexual intercourse before the sa´ī. In this case, one is obliged to return to a mīqāt in order to re-enter the state of consecration. It is not sufficient to merely go outside of the Haram Area; as a precaution (´ala-l-ahwaṯ), in this case, the assumed state of consecration is deemed invalid.
#141: Entering Mecca or being inside the Haram Area without having assumed the state of ihrām is not permitted. Whoever wants to travel there outside the months of Hajj is obligated to enter the state of consecration to perform the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah. An exception is made for people who visit Mecca regularly and have to leave again. The same applies for someone who has completed ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ and Hajj or ´Umratu-l-Mufradah and then leaves Mecca. They are allowed to return to Mecca within the month in which they performed ´Umrah without re-assuming the state of ihrām.
A person who leaves Mecca after having completed the ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ but has not yet performed Hajj has to follow the regulations that are treated in #154.
#142: If a person completes the ´Umratu-l-Mufradah during the Hajj season (as defined in rule 139) and remains in Mecca until the 8th of Dhu-l-Hiğğah and intends to perform Hajj, their ´Umrah is regarded as ´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ and their Hajj as Hağğu-t-Tamattu´, whether or not it is an obligatory Hajj.