Throwing the Stones at the Pillars
The thirteenth obligation:
The thirteenth obligation during the pilgrimage is to throw stones at the three pillars, the first pillar (al-ūla), the medial pillar (al-wusta) and the last pillar (al-´aqabah). It is an obligation to throw the stones on the 11th and on the 12th and – as an obligatory precaution – also on the 13th if the pilgrim spent the night of the 13th in Mina. This has to be done in person, and appointing a representative is only allowed if there is a good reason to do so.
#431: When throwing the stones, it is an obligation to always start with the first pillar, then to continue with the medial pillar and finally the last one. If this order is not adhered to, even if it happens due to ignorance or because of an oversight, the pilgrim has to recommence from the point where the sequence got out of order, this time observing the correct sequence.
If the order was followed correctly but the number of stones was unwittingly or accidentally not right, i.e. only 4 stones have been thrown at one pillar, and only after having thrown the 7 following stones does the pilgrim become aware of it, then it is sufficient to walk back and to complement the missing stones without throwing stones at the following pillar again.
#432: The obligations in terms of throwing stones at the last pillar (al-´aqabah), which have been already mentioned above, are applicable to all the pillars.
#433: The stones must be thrown at the pillars in the daytime. There is an exception for those who are excused (e.g. shepherds, those who fear the crowd, who are sick or who fear for their property). They are allowed to throw the stones on the night before.
#434: If a pilgrim fails to throw the stones on the 11th, either by mistake or due to ignorance, they are obligated to make up for it on the 12 th. If someone fails to throw them on the 12th, they have to make up for it on the 13th.
The same applies – as a precaution – for someone who deliberately did not throw the stones.
As a precaution, the obligations that have to be made up for take priority over the current obligations and a little time interval should be left in between. It is recommended that the obligations that have to be made up for be done at the beginning of the day and the current obligations at the beginning of the time of Adh-Dhuhr.
#435: If someone neglects to throw the stones by mistake or due to ignorance and remembers it after arriving in Mecca, they have to return to Mina to throw the stones. If they forgot about throwing the stones on two or three days, they have to make a break in between the throwing for the different days and observe the order of the days. If they do not think of it until after they have left Mecca, they are not obligated to return to Mina but they must make up for it personally in the following year or appoint someone to do so.
#436: A person who is excused because they are not able to throw the stones themselves, e.g. because they are ill, has to appoint a representative to throw them on their behalf. It is recommended that they be present near the pillars when the stones are thrown and to witness the act. If the representative throws the stones in the name of their principal at a time when no recovery could be hoped for, but the pilgrim later on gets better, then the pilgrim should also throw them personally. If they are not able to personally assign a representative because of the state they are in (e.g. in case of unconsciousness), their companion or any other person may throw the stones on the pilgrim's behalf.
#437: Failing to throw the stones at the pillars during the Ayyāmu-t-Tashrīq does not render the pilgrimage invalid even if it is done on purpose. However, in that case it is a precautionary obligation to make up for it personally in the following year if the pilgrim undertakes the pilgrimage or else to appoint someone to do it by proxy.