Hajj Ritual

Definitions

´ādil righteous
´ala-l-adhhār the one who is using this terms makes clear, that they think it is the most obvious point
´ala-l-ahwaṯ recommended act of precaution
´aurāh parts of the body that have to be covered according to Islamic rules
adhān the call to prayer
adh'dhāhir the obvious
ahādīth the collections of the reports of the teachings, deeds and sayings of the prophet Muhammad (saas) or of the Imams (as)
ahwaṯ luzūman obligatory act of precaution
ahwaṯ wuğūban obligatory act of precaution
ahwaṯ-ul-awlā recommended act of precaution
al-ahwaṯ recommended act of precaution
al-hağar al-'aswad the Black Stone, the eastern cornerstone of the Ka´aba
´Asr the afternoon prayer
āyāt verses of the Holy Quran
Ayyāmu-t-Tashrīq the three days after the festive day (the 11th, 12th, and 13th Dhu-l-Hiğğah)
chuff footwear that reaches up to the ankles
dhikr remembrance of Allah
Dhuhr the obligatory prayer after midday
Dhu-l-Hiğğah the 12th month of the Islamic moon calendar
Dhu-l-Qā´idah the 11th month of the Islamic moon calendar
´Eid a festive day
´Eid-ul-Ad'ha the dawn prayer
Fağr the Festival of the sacrifice
fatwa a legal opinion or learned interpretation that Islamic authorities can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law
fī sabīlillāh an Arabic expression meaning "for the sake of Allah"
fusūq outrages, sinful conduct
Ǧa´āla generally delineated assignment
ğanābah, being ğunub a condition of religious impurity after sexual intercourse or emission of semen
ghusl the full body washing ablution
ǧinn invisible being made of fire
Hağğatu-l-Islām As a religious ritual, the performance of the pilgrimage is obligatory only once in a lifetime for every person. This obligatory pilgrimage is called "Hağğatu-l-Islām".
Hağğu-l-Ifrād Hajj without ´Umrah
Hağğu-l-Qirān a type of Hajj, in which the actions count for both Hajj and ´Umrah
Hağğu-t-Tamattu´ a type of Hajj, where the pilgrim begins with the 'Umrah and performs Hajj afterwards, it is obligatory for everyone who performs the pilgrimage for the first time and who does not live in the Holy Area
hā´id menstruating
Haram the Holy Area around Mecca
harām something sacred or a prohibited act
´ibādah rites or ceremonies of worship
´iddah the period prescribed by Islamic law for a woman during which she may not remarry after being widowed or divorced
iğtihād an Islamic legal term that means "independent reasoning", it is recognized as the decision-making process in Islamic law through personal effort which is completely independent of any school of jurisprudence
ihrām the state of consecration
iqāma the second call to prayer
´Isha the night prayer
ish´ār a small cut with the knife on the right side of the camel's hump, which causes little bleeding that marks the animal as a sacrificial animal
ishkāl means, that there is a problem, the line of argument is weak and therefore vulnerable
istihāda a woman's bleeding that is not connected to her monthly period
izār the bottom sheet of cloth that is worn during the ihrām
Ğ amrat-ul-´Aqabah the large pillar, which is the one nearest to Mecca
kaffārah atonement
kafir someone, who knows the truth but conceals it
khums it literally means "one-fifth" and refers to an Islamic tax that has to be paid on spoils of war, business profits and minerals
khums for sayyeds a portion of the collected khums payments that is dedicated to needy people who are descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (saas)
kufr concealing the truth
madhhab school of jurisprudence
Maghrib the prayer after sunset
mahram close family members who cannot be married to each other according to Islamic law
makruh a disliked or offensive act
marğa´ a scholar of Islamic law who – due to his knowledge and his reputation – has the authority to make legal decisions that may be followed by other Muslims
mīqāt, (pl. mawāqīt) a specific location where the pilgrim enters the state of consecration
mudd a volume measure which defines the portion that fits in one's hands when they both form a scoop together (that is approx. 750 grams / 26.5 oz)
muğtahid a scholar of Islamic law who – due to his knowledge and his reputation – has the authority to make his own decisions
muhrim a pilgrim who is in the state of consecration
mukallaf someone who is mentally and physically mature so that it is their obligation to fulfill the religious duties
mumayyiz the ability to judge which is normally attained at the age of 7
mustahab recommended
Mustağār part of the western wall situated between Rukn-ul-Yamaani and Rukn-ash-Shāmi
nadhr vow in dedication to Allah
nağāsah ritual impurity
nağis something that is regarded as ritually impure
nāsibi someone who is hostile to Ahlul-bayt
nikah marriage
niyyah intention
nufasā in childbed
qadā fulfilling or completing those religious duties that one may have missed
qādī a judge ruling in accordance with Islamic religious law
Qiblah the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays
Rağab the seventh month of the Islamic calendar
raka´ah (dual: rak´atain, pl: raka´āt) one unit of the Islamic prayer
ridā the upper sheet of cloth that is worn during the ihrām
Rukn-ul-Yamaani the corner of the Ka´aba which faces Yemen (it is located in the west-south)
sa´ī the ritual walking which consists of 7 trips between Safa and Marwa
sadaqah charitable donation
safīh someone who spends carelessly, who is not acting responsibly where property is concerned
salāh the Islamic prayer
Sha´bān the eighth month of the Islamic calendar
Shawwāl the tenth month of the Islamic calendar
Sūrah a chapter of the Holy Qur'an
ṯahārah ritual purity
takbīr the term of the phrase "Allāhu Akbar"
Takbiratul ihrām Saying "Allāhu Akbar" right at the beginning of the prayer and thus entering the praying state
talbiyyah special words glorifying Allah which are recited after assuming the state of ihrām
taqīyah hiding one's belief because of fear
taqlīd marking the sacrificial animal
taqsīr shortening the hair
Tarwiyah the eighth day of the month Dhu-l-Hiğğah
tasbīh praising Allah's excellency
ṯawāf circumambulation of the Ka´aba
ṯawāf-un-nisā the name for the farewell circumambulation of the Ka´aba
ṯawāf-uz-ziyarah the tawaf performed by the pilgrim on the 10th of Dhu-l-Hiğğah as the last formal rite of Hajj in Mecca after changing into street clothes (also called ṯawāf-ul-ifādah)
ṯawāfu-l-´umrah the ṯawāf performed as a rite of the ´Umrah
ṯawāfu-l-hağğ the ṯawāf performed as a rite of the Hajj
tayammum dry ablution
thawāb reward
´Umrah minor pilgrimage to Mecca at any time of the year, with a few performance differences in comparison to the actual pilgrimage
´Umratu-t-Tamattu´ a type of the so-called minor pilgrimage which is performed before the Hağğu-t-Tamattu´
´Umrat-ul-Mufradah a type of the so-called minor pilgrimage which is performed independently of the Hajj
wāgib obligatory
wali someone who is entrusted with the complete responsibility over an activity
waqf a trust for common welfare
wudū the ritual ablution that must be performed before someone does their prayer
wuqūf staying at
zakāh the obligatory tax that every Muslim must give