Current Legal Issues

Shading for Men

(This section has been reproduced from Manasikul Hajj.)

269. Shading is of two types:

1. By using movable objects, such as umbrella, the roof of a coach or an aeroplane. This is not allowed for a man in a state of ihram, if the shade is above the head. However, it is allowed to remain under the shade of a moving cloud, or if the shade falls only on one side of his body. That is, pedestrians can walk beside a car producing a shade on one side or the like. As a matter of ihtiyat, passengers must avoid shade unless the shade from objects producing it from both sides is so short that it does not cover the head and chest of the pilgrim.

2. By being under fixed objects like the shade of walls, tunnels, trees, mountains, etc. It is allowed for a pilgrim in a state of ihram, whether riding or on foot, to be under such shades. There is no objection to protecting oneself from the sun with ones bare hands. However, as a matter of ihtiyat, it is better to avoid doing so.

270. Avoiding cover means no protection be used against the sun and rain; the latter is based on the premise of ihtiyat. However, there is no objection to protecting oneself from wind, heat, cold, etc., although avoiding protection is recommended as a matter of ihtiyat. It means that there is no harm in boarding a roofed bus during night, even if it is not raining, as a matter of ihtiyat. That is, even though the bus could provide protection from wind, for example.

271. What has been discussed of shading being not permissible is confined to walking to cover a distance. However, if the pilgrim, in a state of ihram, stops at a place, be it he has taken it for accommodation or not, such as stopping en route to meet friends or for rest, etc., there is no ishkal in his staying under the shade.

Q. Is it permissible for a pilgrim to seek cover under moving objects, once he settles in a place and goes about his business? To give an example, one could have settled in Mekka and went to the Grand Holy Mosque (al-Masjidil Haraam) to do tawaf or say: or he could have settled in Mina and went to the abattoir or jamarat. Is it permissible for him to travel aboard a roofed bus, or use an umbrella?

To say it is permissible could be very problematic (mushkilun jiddan). Accordingly, ihtiyat should be adhered to, [i.e. One should avoid doing so].

273. If a pilgrim resorted to protecting himself against rain or sun, kaffarah is payable. Apparently, there is no difference whether the act was committed out of choice or due to an emergency. If the act [of protecting oneself] is committed more than once, kaffarah becomes payable for every day, as a matter of ihtiyat. However, apparently one kaffarah for every ihram will do. One sheep would suffice for a kaffarah.