Question and Answers
Question: On the package of
meat that is produced in Muslim countries by non-Muslim companies, it
says, “slaughtered according to Islamic laws”. Are we allowed to eat that
meat? Can we eat that meat, if it comes from Muslim companies in non-Muslim
countries? And what is the ruling, if the source is non-Muslim company from a
writing [on the package] has no value at all. If the producer is a Muslim or
it was produced in a place where Muslims are in the majority and it is not
known that the producer is a non-Muslim, then it is permissible to eat
But if the producer is a non-Muslim or it was produced in a place where Muslims are not in the majority and it is not known that the producer is Muslim, then it is not permissible to eat it.
Question: We enter some super markets in
Europe and find meat in tin containers produced by a European company with the
writing on the package that conveys the sense of it being “halal” or
“slaughtered according to Islamic laws”. Is it permissible to buy and eat such
Answer: The writing [on the
package] has no value if it does not lead to certainty [that it is actually
Question: Meat companies slaughter a
large number of chickens at one time [that is, simultaneously]. Now if
the person running the slaughtering machine is a Muslim, who says
takbir and says the name of Allah only once at the time of slaughtering
all the chicken [simultaneously], is it permissible for us to eat those
chickens? If we have doubt about these chickens being halal, can we
[ignore that doubt and] eat them and consider them pure
Answer: If he repeats
the name of Allah as long as the machine is continuing to slaughter, it is
sufficient. In the event of doubt about its being halal (a doubt which
arises concerning the mentioning of the name of Allah), it can be considered
pure and be consumed.
Question: Is it permissible to buy meat
thinking that it is slaughtered according to Islamic laws from a super-market
owned by a Muslim who [also] sells alcoholic drinks?
Yes, it is permissible; and it is halal to eat, even if it previously
came from a non-Muslim as long as there is a likelihood that the shopkeeper
has ascertained that it was slaughtered according to the shari‘a laws;
but not if there is no such likelihood.
Question: Some of the cheese
manufactured in non-Muslim countries contain rennet extracted from the
calf or other animals. We do not know whether the rennet was taken from the
animal that was slaughtered according to Islamic laws; neither do we know that
it has transformed into something else. So is it permissible to eat such
Answer: There is no problem
in eating such cheese.
Question: Gelatin is used in a
number of drinks and food items in the West. We do not know that gelatin has
been extracted from a vegetable or an animal source; and that if it is from an
animal, is it from its bones or from the tissues around the bones; neither do
we know if the animal was one that is halal for us or haram. Are
we allowed to eat such gelatin?
Answer: It is permissible to eat if the doubt is
whether it has been extracted from an animal or vegetable. But, if it is known
that it was derived from an animal, then it is not permissible to eat without
ascertaining that the animal was slaughtered according to shari‘a. This
prohibition applies, as a matter of obligatory precaution, even if it was
extracted from animal bones.
Of course, if a chemical change occurs in the original ingredients during the process of manufacturing the gelatin, there is no problem at all in eating it. Similarly, even if one has doubt whether the animal was slaughtered Islamically or not, still there is no problem in adding the gelatin [made from that animal] to the food in such a minute amont that it is completely absorbed in it.
Question: Commercial fishing vessels
place their huge nets [in the sea] and catch tons of fish which
are then sold in the markets. It is well known that modern methods of fishing
are based on catching the fish alive, and that the fishermen throw the dead
fish back into the water for fear of contamination.
Therefore, is it permissible for us to buy such fish in the markets of non-Muslims? Is it permissible for us to buy such fish from Muslims who are not considerate of religious laws? In both the cases to ascertain that this particular fish in front of me was taken out of the water alive, should seek the advice of an expert and reliable witness to testify to that fact which may prove difficult, impractical, and unrealistic.
So, is there a solution for practicing Muslims who face difficulty in ascertaining whether or not the meat of chicken, cow or sheep is halal, and therefore take to eating fish instead?
Answer: There is no problem
in buying it from Muslims or non-Muslims; as there is no problem in eating it,
if they are satisfied that the fish was caught by the method mentioned above
and that it belongs to the category of scale fish.
Question: At times we find the name or
picture of fish on the cans and come to know that the fish is a scale fish.
So, is it permissible for us to rely on the name or the picture in determining
the category of fish, knowing well that a wrong statement of this kind would
put the manufacturers in great loss or even more serious [situation] than just
Answer: If one is satisfied
it is the truth, it is permissible to act upon it.
Question: Is it permissible to eat
lobster, in all its varieties, by following the pattern of
Answer: It is not permissible
to eat lobster.
Question: Is it permissible to buy a
fish from a Muslim who is not a Shi‘a while we have no knowledge whether it is
from the category of scale fish or not?
Answer: It is permissible to buy it but one cannot
eat it unless he makes sure that it is from the category of scale
Question: Is it permissible to eat
halal food which has been steam cooked with the steam of meat not
slaughtered according to Islamic laws?
Answer: It is not permissible since the food, as
mentioned in the question, will be considered impure (najis) because of
coming into contact with the wet parts from the steam of the impure
Question: If wine is served at a
table, it is haram for a Muslim to sit at that table. What is meant
by “table”? Does this apply to the entire group [that has gone to the
restaurant and some are being served alcohol] even if the tables are more than
one? Or does it only apply to one table [and not the group], in the sense that
if there are two separate tables, it would be permissible to sit [at the table
on which alcohol is not being served, even if they are part of the same
Answer: The criterion is
one table. However, one should know that the prohibition of sitting at a table
on which wine or intoxicant drinks are being served is based on precaution; of
course, eating and drinking at that table is haram based on obligatory
Question: A Muslim enters a café and
sits down at a table to drink tea, then a stranger comes at the same table to
drink wine. Is it obligatory upon the Muslim to stop drinking tea and
Answer: Yes, as mentioned
earlier, it is obligatory to move away from that table.
Question: Is it permissible to drink
beer that says “alcohol free” on it?
Answer: It is not permissible to drink, if “beer”
means the drink made from barley that causes mild drunkenness. But if it means
a drink made from barley that does not cause mild drunkenness, there is no
problem in it.
Question: Alcohol is used in the
production of many drugs and medications: Is it permissible to take them? Are
they considered pure (tahir)?
Answer: They are pure; and since the alcohol used in
them is so minute that it dissolves in them, it is therefore permissible to
take them also.
Question: There is this vinegar
that is made from wine, in the sense that it was wine and then, through a
manufacturing process, changed into vinegar. Therefore, the label on the
bottle reads: “wine vinegar” as opposed to the vinegar made from barley or
other items. One of the signs [of differentiating between “wine vinegar” and
the wine itself is that] the bottles of this vinegar are displayed in the area
of vinegar, and it has never happened that these bottles are placed on the
shelves of wines. Moreover, there is no difference between such vinegar and
the vinegar made from dates for example. So, can this wine which has turned
into vinegar be considered vinegar under the rule of change
Answer: If the
name “vinegar” can be applied in the view of common people upon that product,
as has been assumed in the question, the same rule governing vinegar would
apply to it. [That is, it is pure as well as permissible.]
Question: The manufacturers of food and
sweets as well as of the food packed in cans are required to mention the
ingredients of the items being sold. To prevent the food from going bad,
manufacturers add preservatives to them; these preservatives could be
from animal source and are listed by alphabetical codes like “E” alongside a
number like “E 450” or “E 472,” etc. What is the ruling in the following
When one does not know the origin of these
If one sees a list issued by those who have no idea of the
rule of chemical transformation (istihalah: a purifying agent) that
says that the items described by so and so alphabet and/or number are
forbidden because they come from animal source?
When one does preliminary research and is satisfied that the
preservative agent does not retain its original form but transforms in
characteristics and changes into another substance?
It is permissible to eat the food containing those preservatives.
If it is not ascertained that it is from an animal source —even
if such a claim is made— it is permissible to eat it. Similarly, [it is
permissible] if it is ascertained that [it is from an animal source] but one
is uncertain whether it comes from an impure mayta and that its
amount mixed in the food stuff is so minute that it is completely absorbed
in it in the view of common people.
There is no problem in applying the rule of purity and
permissibility whenever the chemical change is proved in the form that it
transforms into another substance and in the view of common people nothing
of the original substance remains.
Question: It is requested of you to
answer the following two questions:
In itself is gelatin considered pure
If we have doubt whether or not istihala (chemical
change) has occurred [in the process of manufacturing the gelatin] because
of uncertainty about the concept and the extent of applying the rule of
istihala, do we extend the previous knowledge (istishab) that
gelatin is still impure?
As for the gelatin derived from animal source, if the impurity of the origin is not established (for example, if there is a probability that the animal was slaughtered according to Islamic laws), it will be considered pure; however, it should not be added to the food, except in such amounts that it would be completely absorbed. [That is, it is pure (tahir) but should be used in food items in very minute quantities only.]
This [latter caution] is for a case where it is neither established that the animal was slaughtered according to Islamic rules, nor had istihala taken place. [If any of these two issues were established, then there would be no restriction in using gelatin in food items.]
The above ruling does not differ whether the gelatin was derived from parts of the animal that has feeling (like cartilage, gristle) or has no feeling (like bones). This ruling about parts with no feeling is based on obligatory precaution. However, if its impurity was established (for example, it is known that it comes from an essentially impure animal or from the cartilage of an animal not slaughtered according to Islamic rules, or from its bones without purifying them, in which case it would be considered mutanajjis by coming into wet contact with an impure item), then considering it pure and permissible for use in food items depends on establishing istihala. And in this matter [whether istihala took place or not], one should refer to the common perception of the people. We have explained its criterion earlier.
[Istishab is a principle that says that in case of
doubt one should extend the previous knowledge about that particular issue
until proven otherwise.] The principle of istishab is neither
applicable in cases of doubt concerning the concept [of the law], nor in
cases of the law themselves—as has been proven in its appropriate place in
the Science of ‘Usûl. However, since the issue of impurity
(najasat) is related to the generic concept in a common man’s
perspective and extension of judgement about najasat depends, in the
eyes of sensible people, on continued existence of its elements — this makes
the doubt about occurrence of istihala (whether its application is
limited or broad) into a doubt about continued existence of impure elements
[in the gelatin]. And this is a matter of application of the law. There is
therefore no problem in applying the principle of istishab in this
case. Allah knows the best.
Question: We are unaware of the
ingredients of food sold in shops in Western countries: it might be free from
those ingredients that are forbidden to us or it might contain them. Are we
allowed to eat such items without looking into their ingredients, or
inquiring about them? Or is that not allowed to us?
It is permissible [to eat such food] as long as it is not known that it
contains meat, fat, and their derivatives that are forbidden to
Question: Is it permissible to use, in
our foods, oils derived from fish that are forbidden to us? What about
using such oils for other matters?
Answer: It is not permissible to eat such oils but
their other usage is permissible. Allah knows the best.
Question: Is it permissible for a Muslim
to attend a gathering where intoxicant drinks are being
Answer: Eating and drinking
in those gatherings is forbidden. However, the prohibition in attending such
gatherings is based on compulsory precaution. But there is no problem in
attending such gatherings for the purpose of forbidding the evil (nahi
‘anil munkar), if one is capable of doing that.
Question: Is it permissible to eat
lobster, crayfish, and snails?
Answer: Is it not permissible to eat from marine animals anything except fish that has scale; shrimp is considered from that category [of permissible sea animals]. But other than fish, like lobster, and similarly the fish that does not have scale is forbidden. Allah knows the best.